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Giovanni De' Medici (cardinal)
Giovanni di Cosimo I de' Medici (29 September 1544 – 20 November 1562), also known as Giovanni de' Medici the Younger, was an Italian cardinal. Early years[edit] He was born in Florence, the second son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleanor of Toledo. While his elder brother Francesco went on to a political and military career, Giovanni had reserved for him the ecclesiastical career. He was the subject of two famous portraits by Bronzino, one as an infant and another of some years later, together with Eleonora of Toledo (although the subject of the latter has been identified also as Francesco or Garzia). After having been Archbishop of Pisa, he was created cardinal in Santa Maria in Domnica by Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV
in the consistory of 31 January 1560, aged only seventeen. Death[edit] Probably already suffering from tuberculosis, Giovanni died two years after he was made a cardinal in Livorno, from a malaria attack
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Florence
Florence
Florence
(/ˈflɒrəns/ FLORR-ənss; Italian: Firenze [fiˈrɛntse] ( listen))[2] is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.[3] Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era.[4] It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages".[5] A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions.[6] From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
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Pietro De' Medici
Don Pietro de' Medici
Pietro de' Medici
(3 June 1554 – 25 April 1604) was the youngest son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
and Eleonora di Toledo. Early in 1571 he went to Rome and in the spring of 1575 he went to Venice. In 1571 he married his first cousin Eleonora di Garzia di Toledo, whom he accused of adultery and strangled with a dog leash in July 1576 at the Villa Medici at Cafaggiolo. He also had her supposed lover Bernardino Antinori
Antinori
imprisoned and killed. Eleonora di Garzia di Toledo
Eleonora di Garzia di Toledo
1571At the end of 1577, he went for the first of many stays at the Spanish court. He remained in Spain until the end of 1578. During this visit he gained a reputation as a spendthrift and a rake. He left Tuscany in October 1579 to bring Italian troops to Spain and lead them during the mission to Portugal
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Jacopo Salviati
Jacopo Salviati
Jacopo Salviati
(September 15, 1461 – September 6, 1533), was an Italian politician and son-in-law of Lorenzo de' Medici. He was married to the prestigious Lucrezia de' Medici, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, on September 10, 1486, and they would have 10 children together. The son of Giovanni Salviati and Maddalena Gondi, he devoted himself to the economic affairs of the family, becoming very wealthy. He then engaged in political life. He was Prior of the Guilds (see Guilds of Florence) in 1499 and 1518, then gonfalonier of Justice in 1514
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Maria Salviati
Maria Salviati
Maria Salviati
(17 July 1499 – 29 December 1543) was an Italian noblewoman, the daughter of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici
Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici
and Jacopo Salviati. She married Giovanni dalle Bande Nere
Giovanni dalle Bande Nere
and was the mother of Cosimo I de Medici. Her husband died 30 November 1526, leaving her a widow at the age of 27. Salviati never remarried; after her husband's death she adopted the somber garb of a novice, which is how she is remembered today as numerous late portraits show her attired in black and white.[1]Contents1 Family 2 Life 3 Descendants 4 Bia de' Medici 5 Ancestors 6 Descendants 7 References 8 Sources 9 See alsoFamily[edit] Maria Salviati
Maria Salviati
was born in Florence. She descended from two of Florence's most powerful banking families: the Salviati on her father's side, and the Medici on her mother's
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Lorenzo De' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
(Italian pronunciation: [loˈrɛntso de ˈmɛːditʃi], 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492[1]) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic
Florentine Republic
and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance
Renaissance
culture in Italy.[2][3][4] Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico [loˈrɛntso il maɲˈɲiːfiko]) by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists and poets. As a patron, he is best known for his sponsorship of artists such as Botticelli
Botticelli
and Michelangelo
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Lucrezia De' Medici (1470–1553)
Lucrezia Maria Romola de' Medici (4 August 1470 – between 10 and 15 November 1553) was an Italian noblewoman, the eldest daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
and Clarice Orsini[1] and mother of Maria Salviati and Giovanni Salviati.[2] Her portrait was considered (as a newborn) as the baby Jesus in Our Lady of the Magnificat of Sandro Botticelli.Contents1 Life 2 Patronage 3 Issue 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 SourcesLife[edit] She was married in February 1488 to Jacopo Salviati.[3] She brought a dowry of 2000 florins to the marriag
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Clarice Orsini
Clarice Orsini
Clarice Orsini
(1450–1488)[1] was the daughter of Jacopo Orsini, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini.[2] She was the wife of Lorenzo de' Medici and mother of Pope Leo X.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Issue 3 Ancestry 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksLife[edit] Clarice and Lorenzo married 4 June 1469,[3] with a four-day celebration.[4] The marriage was arranged by Lorenzo's mother Lucrezia Tornabuoni, who wanted her eldest son to marry a woman from a noble family to enhance the social status of the Medicis.[2] Their marriage was unusual for
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García Álvarez De Toledo, 1st Duke Of Alba
García Álvarez de Toledo y Carrillo de Toledo, 1st Duke of Alba
Duke of Alba
de Tormes[1] (c. 1424 – 20 June 1488) was a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician.Contents1 Biography 2 Marriage and issue 3 Ancestry 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyBiography[edit] He was the son of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 1st Count of Alba de Tormes and of Mencía Carrillo de Toledo y Palomeque, Lady of Bercimuelle. In 1472, King Henry IV of Castile
Henry IV of Castile
elevated the County of Alba de Tormes
Alba de Tormes
into a hereditary Duchy
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Fadrique Álvarez De Toledo, 2nd Duke Of Alba
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez, 2nd Duke of Alva (in full, Spanish: Don Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Quiñones, segundo Duque de Alba de Tormes, segundo marqués de Coria, conde de Salvatierra, señor del estado de Valdecorneja y del estado de Huéscar) (c. 1460 – 19 October 1531) was a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician.Contents1 Life and career 2 Additional information2.1 See also 2.2 SourcesLife and career[edit] He was the eldest son of García Álvarez de Toledo, 1st Duke of Alba, and his wife, María Enríquez de Quiñones. Fadrique was very close to the Catholic Monarchs
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Pedro Álvarez De Toledo, Marquis Of Villafranca
Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, jure uxoris Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo (Spanish: Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, Marqués de Villafranca del Bierzo; July 13, 1484 – February 21, 1553) was a Spanish politician
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Maria Osorio
Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, jure uxoris Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo (Spanish: Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, Marqués de Villafranca del Bierzo; July 13, 1484 – February 21, 1553) was a Spanish politician
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Ferdinando I De' Medici, Grand Duke Of Tuscany
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Grand Duke of Tuscany
(30 July 1549 – 17 February 1609) was Grand Duke of Tuscany
Grand Duke of Tuscany
from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.Contents1 Early life 2 Grand Duke 3 Marriage 4 Foreign policy 5 Issue 6 Ancestors 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit]Ferdinando I de' Medici as Cardinal (1562 to 1589).Evangelium Sanctum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi in Arabic, 1590, with Arabic
Arabic
types of Robert Granjon, Typographia Medicea, Rome.Ferdinando was the fifth son (the third surviving at the time of his birth) of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleanor of Toledo, the daughter of Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca, the Spanish viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples. He was made a Cardinal in 1562 at the age of 14, but was never ordained into the priesthood
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Philip De' Medici
Philip de' Medici
Philip de' Medici
(May 20, 1577 – March 29, 1582) was the youngest child of Francesco I de' Medici
Francesco I de' Medici
and Joanna of Austria. He was the heir to the Tuscan throne. Life[edit] Philip received his name in honour of the King Philip II of Spain. The birth was celebrated with great joy by all the court, because thus was secured the succession of the Grand Duchy for another generation and eliminated all the hopes of Bianca Cappello
Bianca Cappello
(his father's mistress) to have her "son" Antonio as heir of Tuscany. Philip became Grand Prince of Tuscany. When he was not quite eleven months old, his mother died in an accident falling down the stairs of the ducal apartments while heavily pregnant. His father then married Bianca Cappello
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Lucrezia Landriani
Lucrezia Landriani
Lucrezia Landriani
(born c. 1440) was the mistress of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, and the mother of his renowned illegitimate daughter, Caterina Sforza, Lady of Imola, Countess of Forlì.[1] Lucrezia had three other children by the Duke, and two by her husband. Biography[edit] Lucrezia was the wife of Count Gian Piero Landriani, a courtier at the ducal court and a close friend of Galeazzo Maria Sforza
Galeazzo Maria Sforza
(24 January 1444 – 26 December 1476), son of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan
Milan
and Bianca Maria Visconti, Duchess of Milan. Galeazzo Maria would become Duke of Milan
Milan
upon the death of his father on 8 March 1466. Lucrezia was born in Milan
Milan
around 1440; nothing further, however, is known of her early years, or her parentage
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Cosimo II De' Medici, Grand Duke Of Tuscany
Cosimo II de' Medici (12 May 1590 – 28 February 1621) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 until his death. He was the elder son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Christina of Lorraine. For the majority of his eleven-year reign, he delegated the administration of Tuscany to his ministers. He is best remembered as the patron of Galileo Galilei, his childhood tutor.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Patronage2.1 Science3 Issue 4 Ancestors 5 Titles, styles, honours and arms5.1 Titles and styles6 Citations 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 See also 10 External linksBiography[edit]Cristofano Allori: Cosimo IICosimo's father Ferdinando I took care to provide him with a modern education. Indeed, Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
was Cosimo's tutor between 1605 and 1608. Ferdinando arranged for him to marry Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, daughter of Archduke Charles II, in 1608
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