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Giovanni Battista Re
GIOVANNI BATTISTA RE (born 30 January 1934) is an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
whose service has been primarily in the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
. He was elevated to the rank of cardinal in 2001. He is the Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops , having retired on 30 June 2010. As the senior Cardinal-Bishop to attend the March 2013 conclave to elect Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
's successor, he chaired the conclave. Pope Francis
Pope Francis
approved his election as Sub-Dean of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
on 10 June 2017
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Titular See
A TITULAR SEE in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular metropolitan" (highest rank), "titular archbishop" (intermediary rank) or "titular bishop " (lowest rank), which normally goes by the status conferred on the titular see. The term is used to signify a diocese that no longer functionally exists, often because the diocese once flourished but the territory was conquered for Islam
Islam
or no longer functions because of a schism . The Greek–Turkish population exchange of 1923 also contributed to titular bishoprics
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Cardinal Secretary Of State
The SECRETARY OF STATE OF HIS HOLINESS THE POPE, commonly known as the CARDINAL SECRETARY OF STATE, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State , which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
. The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See
Holy See
and the Vatican City . The Secretary of State is currently Cardinal Pietro Parolin
Pietro Parolin
. CONTENTS * 1 Duties * 2 History * 3 List * 3.1 Secretaries of State between 1551 and 1644 * 3.2 Cardinal Secretaries of State since 1644 * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links DUTIESThe Cardinal Secretary is appointed by the Pope
Pope
, and serves as one of his principal advisors. As one of the senior offices in the Roman Catholic Church , the Secretary is required to be a cardinal
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Papal Consistory
In the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
a CONSISTORY is a formal meeting of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
called by the pope . Consistories serve as an opportunity for the pope to elevate new cardinals to the college. A meeting of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
to elect a new pope is called a conclave . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 Ceremony * 4 In pectore * 5 Recent consistories * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe term consistory comes from the Latin : con-sistere; "stand together". Early popes conferred with their Roman presbytery which included the deacons appointed to oversee different parts of Rome
Rome
. This tradition continued as deacons were replaced with cardinals and those cardinals (from among whom the pope was chosen) continued to meet at the request of successive popes
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Papal Conclave, 2005
The PAPAL CONCLAVE OF 2005 was convened as a result of the death of Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
on 2 April 2005. After his death, the cardinals who were in Rome met and set a date for the beginning of the conclave to elect his successor. The conclave began on 18 April 2005 and ended the following day after four ballots. Eligible members of the College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church, those who were younger than 80 years of age at the time of the death of Pope
Pope
John Paul II, met and elected Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, then Dean of the College of Cardinals , as the new pope. After accepting his election, he took the pontifical name of Benedict XVI
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His Eminence
HIS EMINENCE (abbreviation "H.Em.", oral address Your Eminence or Most Reverend Eminence) is a historical style of reference for high nobility, still in use in various religious contexts. CONTENTS * 1 Catholicism * 2 Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
* 3 Other religions * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References CATHOLICISMThe style remains in use as the official style or standard of address in reference to a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, reflecting his status as a Prince of the Church
Prince of the Church
. A longer, and more formal, title is "HIS (or YOUR when addressing the cardinal directly) MOST REVEREND EMINENCE". Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
who are also cardinals may be addressed as "His Eminence" or by the style particular to Eastern Catholic patriarchs, His Beatitude
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Monsignor
MONSIGNOR /mɒnˈsiːnjə/ is an honorific form of address for those members of the clergy of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
including bishops, honorary prelates and canons. In some cases, these ecclesiastical honorific titles derive from the pope, but in other cases it is simply a customary or honorary style belonging to a prelate or honorary prelate. These are granted to individuals who have rendered valuable service to the Church, or who provide some special function in Church governance, or who are members of bodies such as certain chapters . The title is never bestowed on those classified as religious in Catholicism. Although in some languages the word is used as a form of address for bishops, which is indeed its primary use in those languages, this is not customary in English. Monsignor
Monsignor
is the apocopic form of the Italian monsignore, from the French mon seigneur, meaning "my lord"
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Priesthood (Catholic Church)
The ministerial orders of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(for similar but different rules among Eastern Catholics see Eastern Catholic Church
Catholic Church
) are those of bishop , presbyter (more commonly called priest in English ), and deacon . The ordained PRIESTHOOD and the common priesthood (or priesthood of all the baptized faithful ) are different in function and essence. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that when a man participates in priesthood, he participates in the priesthood of Christ
Christ
Himself. All men who, through the Sacrament
Sacrament
of Holy Orders
Holy Orders
, have become priests participate in Christ's priesthood; they act in persona Christi Capitis, in the person of Christ, the Head of His Body, the Church
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Brescia
BRESCIA (Italian: ( listen ); Lombard : Brèsa (locally: , or ); Latin : Brixia; Venetian : Bressa) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy
Lombardy
in northern Italy. It is situated at the foot of the Alps
Alps
, a few kilometres from the lakes Garda and Iseo . With a population of 196,480, it is the second largest city in the region and the fourth of northwest Italy
Italy
. The urban area of Brescia
Brescia
extends beyond the administrative city limits and has a population of 672,822, while over 1.5 million people live in its metropolitan area . The city is the administrative capital of the Province of Brescia , one of the largest in Italy, with over 1,200,000 inhabitants. Founded over 3,200 years ago, Brescia
Brescia
(in antiquity Brixia) has been an important regional centre since pre-Roman times
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Giovanni Benelli
GIOVANNI BENELLI (12 May 1921 – 26 October 1982) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church . He served as Archbishop of Florence from 1977 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1977. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life and ordination * 1.2 Roman Curia * 1.3 Archbishop * 1.4 Papabile * 1.5 Later life and death * 2 See also * 3 References * 3.1 Notes * 3.2 Bibliography * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE AND ORDINATIONGiovanni Benelli was born in Poggiole di Vernio , Tuscany, to Luigi and Maria (née Simoni) Benelli. Baptised the day after his birth, on 13 May, he was the youngest of his parents' five surviving children, and his uncle Guido was a revered Franciscan friar . Benelli entered the Seminary of Pistoia in 1931, and then attended the Pontifical Gregorian University and the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in Rome
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Pontifical Council For Legislative Texts
Corpus Juris Canonici
Corpus Juris Canonici
* Decretist * Regulæ Juris
Regu

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Congregation For The Evangelization Of Peoples
The CONGREGATION FOR THE EVANGELIZATION OF PEOPLES ( Latin
Latin
: Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) in Rome
Rome
is the congregation of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
responsible for missionary work and related activities. It is perhaps better known by its former title, the SACRED CONGREGATION FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE FAITH (Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide). It was founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622 to arrange missionary work on behalf of the various religious institutions, and in 1627 Pope Urban VIII established within it a training college for missionaries. When Pope Paul VI reorganized and adjusted the tasks of the Roman Curia with the publication of Regimini Ecclesiae Universae on August 15, 1967, the name of the congregation was changed to the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
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Planned Parenthood
PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION OF AMERICA, INC. (PPFA), or PLANNED PARENTHOOD, is a nonprofit organization that provides reproductive health care in the United States
United States
and globally. It is a tax-exempt corporation under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3) and a member association of the International Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
Federation (IPPF). PPFA has its roots in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York, where Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in 1916. Sanger founded the American Birth Control League in 1921, which changed its name to Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
in 1942. Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
consists of 159 medical and non-medical affiliates, which operate over 650 health clinics in the U.S. It partners with organizations in 12 countries globally
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Catholics For A Free Choice
CATHOLICS FOR CHOICE (CFC) is a pro-choice dissenting Catholic advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. Formed in 1973 as CATHOLICS FOR A FREE CHOICE, CFC states that its mission is "to serve as a voice for Catholics who believe that the Catholic tradition supports a woman's moral and legal right to follow her conscience in matters of sexuality and reproductive health." The group gained some notice and status after its 1984 advertisement in The New York Times challenging Church teaching on abortion led to Church disciplinary pressure against some of the priests and nuns who signed it. It has lobbied nationally and internationally for pro-choice goals and led an unsuccessful effort to downgrade the Holy See 's status in the United Nations. CFC was led for 25 years by Frances Kissling and is currently led by its president, Jon O'Brien
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Freemasonry
FREEMASONRY or MASONRY consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons , which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds , those of Apprentice , Journeyman
Journeyman
or fellow (now called Fellowcraft), and Master Mason . These are the degrees offered by Craft (or Blue Lodge) Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as FREEMASONS or MASONS. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, and are usually administered by different bodies than the craft degrees
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Fabian Bruskewitz
FABIAN WENDELIN BRUSKEWITZ (born September 6, 1935) is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church . He is the eighth, now retired, Bishop of Lincoln , Nebraska. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and ministry * 2 Episcopal career * 3 Retirement * 4 Views * 4.1 LGBT issues * 4.2 National guidelines on sex-abuse programs * 4.3 1996 decree of automatic excommunication * 4.4 Denial of Communion to politicians who support abortion * 4.5 Tridentine Mass * 5 Arms * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links * 9 Episcopal succession EARLY LIFE AND MINISTRYFabian Bruskewitz was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on September 6, 1935. He attended a local parochial school before studying at St. Lawrence Seminary High School in Mount Calvary, Wisconsin and at St. Francis Seminary in Milwaukee
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