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Gimpo International Airport
GIMPO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (Korean : 김포국제공항 ), commonly known as GIMPO AIRPORT (IATA : GMP, ICAO : RKSS) (formerly and originally KIMPO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT), is located in the far western end of Seoul
Seoul
, some 15 km (9 mi) west of the Central District of Seoul. Gimpo
Gimpo
was the main international airport for Seoul
Seoul
and South Korea before being replaced by Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport
in 2001. In 2015, 23,163,778 passengers used the airport, making it the third largest airport in Korea , as it has been surpassed by Jeju International Airport . International Terminal at Gimpo
Gimpo
Airport, Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
The airport is located south of the Han River in western Seoul
Seoul
. The name "Gimpo" comes from the nearby city of Gimpo
Gimpo
, of which the airport used to be a part. On 29 November 2003, scheduled services between Gimpo
Gimpo
and Haneda Airport in Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan resumed. Services to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport resumed on 28 October 2007. Services to Kansai International Airport in Osaka
Osaka
, Japan started on 26 October 2008. Services to Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
started on 1 July 2011
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International Air Transport Association Airport Code
An IATA AIRPORT CODE, also known as an IATA LOCATION IDENTIFIER, IATA STATION CODE or simply a LOCATION IDENTIFIER, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The characters prominently displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are an example of a way these codes are used. The assignment of these codes is governed by IATA Resolution 763, and it is administered by IATA headquarters in Montreal . The codes are published biannually in the IATA Airline Coding Directory. IATA also provides codes for railway stations and for airport handling entities. A list of airports sorted by IATA code is available. A list of railway station codes , shared in agreements between airlines and rail lines such as Amtrak , SNCF French Rail , and Deutsche Bahn , is available. There is also a separate list of Amtrak station codes , three-character codes used by Amtrak for its railway stations in the United States and Canada
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International Civil Aviation Organization Airport Code
The ICAO (/ˌaɪˌkeɪˈoʊ/ , _eye-KAY-oh_ ) AIRPORT CODE or LOCATION INDICATOR is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes are defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization , and published in ICAO Document 7910: _Location Indicators_ are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning . ICAO codes are also used to identify other aviation facilities such as weather stations , International Flight Service Stations or Area Control Centers , whether or not they are located at airports. Flight information regions are also identified by a unique ICAO-code. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 ICAO codes vs. IATA codes * 3 Structure * 4 Pseudo ICAO-codes * 5 Prefixes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in 1947 under the auspices of the United Nations , and it established _Flight Information Regions _ (_FIR_s) for controlling air traffic and making airport identification simple and clear. Code selections in North America were based on existing radio station identifiers . For example, radio stations in Canada were already starting with "C", so it seemed logical to begin Canadian airport identifiers with a C (Cxxx). The United States had many pre-existing airports with established mnemonic codes
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Seoul
SEOUL (/soʊl/ ; 서울; Korean: ( listen )), officially the SEOUL SPECIAL CITY – is the capital and largest metropolis of the Republic of Korea
Korea
(commonly known as South Korea). Seoul
Seoul
is the world's 16th largest city , and forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area , which includes the surrounding Incheon
Incheon
metropolis and Gyeonggi province. The Seoul Capital Area houses about half of the country's population of 51.44 million people with 678,102 international residents. Situated on the Han River , Seoul's history stretches back more than two thousand years when it was founded in 18 BCE by Baekje
Baekje
, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea . It continued as the capital of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty . The Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage
World Heritage
Sites : Changdeok Palace
Palace
, Hwaseong Fortress , Jongmyo Shrine , Namhansanseong and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty . Seoul
Seoul
is surrounded by mountains, the tallest being Mt. Bukhan , the world's most visited national park per square foot
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Gangseo District, Seoul
GANGSEO DISTRICT (GANGSEO-GU) is one of the 25 wards (gu) of Seoul
Seoul
, South Korea
South Korea
. It is located on the south side of the Han River . Gimpo Airport is in Gonghang-dong, where many flights fly to cities like Busan
Busan
, Jeju , and Gwangju
Gwangju
. The head of this district is Noh hyunsong (노현송) since July 2010
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Airline Hub
AIRLINE HUBS or HUB AIRPORTS are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport . They serve as transfer (or stop-over) points to get passengers to their final destination. It is part of the hub-and-spoke system . An airline operates flights from several non-hub (spoke) cities to the hub airport, and passengers traveling between spoke cities need to connect through the hub. This paradigm creates economies of scale that allow an airline to serve (via an intermediate connection) city-pairs that could otherwise not be economically served on a non-stop basis. This system contrasts with the point-to-point model , in which there are no hubs and nonstop flights are instead offered between spoke cities. Hub airports also serve origin and destination (O a flight from a hub to a spoke carries not just passengers originating at the hub, but also passengers originating at multiple spoke cities. However, the system is costly. Additional employees and facilities are needed to cater to connecting passengers. To serve spoke cities of varying populations and demand, an airline requires several aircraft types, and specific training and equipment are necessary for each type. In addition, airlines may experience capacity constraints as they expand at their hub airports. For the passenger, the hub-and-spoke system offers one-stop air service to a wide array of destinations
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Asiana Airlines
ASIANA AIRLINES INC. ( Hangul
Hangul
: 아시아나항공; RR : _Asiana Hanggong_, simplified Chinese : 韩亚航空; traditional Chinese : 韓亞航空; literally: "Korea Asia Airlines" ; ; formerly SEOUL AIRLINES) is one of South Korea
South Korea
's two major airlines , along with Korean Air
Korean Air
. Asiana has its headquarters in Asiana Town building in Seoul
Seoul
. The airline has its domestic hub at Gimpo International Airport and its international hub at Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport
(70 kilometres (43 mi) from central Seoul). As a member of Star Alliance
Star Alliance
, it operates 14 domestic and 90 international passenger routes, and 27 cargo routes throughout Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania. As of December 2014, the company employs 10,183 people. The majority of Asiana's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based in Seoul. Asiana Airlines is the largest shareholder in Air Busan
Air Busan
, a low-cost regional carrier joint venture with Busan
Busan
Metropolitan City . The airline also holds 100% share of Air Seoul
Air Seoul
, a subsidiary and its own low-cost carrier. Asiana is also currently an official sponsor of the South Korea
South Korea
national football team and The Presidents Cup 2015
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Korean Air
KOREAN AIR LINES CO., LTD. ( Hangul : 대한항공; RR : _Daehan Hanggong_) (), operating as KOREAN AIR, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights. The airline's global headquarters are located in Seoul , Republic of Korea . Korean Air was founded as Korean National Airlines in 1946. After several years of service and expansion, the airline was fully privatized in 1969. Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 127 cities in 44 countries, while its domestic division serves 12 destinations. It is among the top 20 airlines in the world in terms of passengers carried and is also the top-ranked international cargo airline. Incheon International Airport serves as Korean Air's international hub. Korean Air also maintains a satellite headquarters campus at Incheon . The majority of Korean Air's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based in Seoul. Korean Air is the parent company of Jin Air and is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. It was voted Asia's best airline by _Business Traveler_ readers in 2012
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Above Mean Sea Level
METRES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL (MAMSL) or simply METRES ABOVE SEA LEVEL (MASL or M A.S.L.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level . Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time. For this and other reasons, recorded measurements of elevation above sea level might differ from the actual elevation of a given location over sea level at a given moment. CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 How it is determined * 3 Other measurement systems * 4 Abbreviations * 5 See also * 6 References USES Metres above sea level is the standard measurement of the elevation or altitude of: * Geographic locations such as towns , mountains and other landmarks . * The top of buildings and other structures . * Flying objects such as airplanes or helicopters .HOW IT IS DETERMINEDThe elevation or altitude in metres above sea level of a location, object, or point can be determined in a number of ways. The most common include: * Global Positioning System (GPS), which triangulates a location in reference to multiple satellites . * Altimeters . They typically measure atmospheric pressure , which decreases as altitude increases. * Aerial photography . * Surveying .Accurate measurement of historical mean sea levels is complex
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Runway
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a RUNWAY is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft ". Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt , concrete , or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass , dirt , gravel , ice , or salt ). CONTENTS * 1 Naming * 2 Declared distances * 3 Sections of a runway * 4 Runway markings * 4.1 National variants * 5 Runway lighting * 5.1 History * 5.2 Technical specifications * 5.3 Control of lighting system * 6 Runway safety * 7 Pavement * 7.1 Pavement surface * 7.2 Surface type codes * 8 Runway length * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links NAMING Font and size of numbers and letters Runway 22 FAA airport diagram at O\'Hare International Airport . From left to right, runways 14/32 slant down, runways 4/22 slant up, runways 9R/27L, 9L/27R and 10/28 are horizontal. Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in deca degrees . This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination . A runway numbered 09 points east (90°), runway 18 is south (180°), runway 27 points west (270°) and runway 36 points to the north (360° rather than 0°)
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Asphalt
ASPHALT /ˈæsˌfɔːlt, -ˌfɑːlt/ , also known as BITUMEN /ˈbɪtʃəmᵻn, bᵻˈtuːmᵻn/ , is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum . It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch . Before the 20th century, the term ASPHALTUM was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος _ásphaltos_. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete . Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English , "asphalt" (or "asphalt cement") is commonly used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is often called "bitumen", and geologists worldwide often prefer the term for the naturally occurring variety. Common colloquial usage often refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar ", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits . Naturally occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen"
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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ko ISO 639-2 kor ISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto Korean LINGUIST LIST okm Middle Korean oko Old Korean GLOTTOLOG kore1280 LINGUASPHERE 45-AAA-a Countries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green). THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all . They can be used to guess a text's encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by definition not a correctly encoded Unicode
Unicode
text. Unicode's U+FEFF Byte order mark character can be inserted at the beginning of a Unicode text to signal its endianness : a program reading such a text and encountering 0xFFFE would then know that it should switch the byte order for all the following characters
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Hangul
The KOREAN ALPHABET, 한글 , known as HANGUL in South Korea (also transcribed HANGEUL) and as 조선글(CHOSŏN\'GŭL) /조선문자(CHOSŏN MUNTCHA) in North Korea , is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century. It was created in 1443 under King Sejong the Great during the Joseon Dynasty . Now the alphabet is the official script of both South Korea and North Korea, and co-official in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of China's Jilin Province . In South Korea, primarily Hangul is used to write the Korean language, as using Hanja ( Chinese characters ) in typical Korean writing fell out of common usage during the late 1990s. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 19 consonant and 21 vowel letters. However, instead of being written sequentially like the letters of the Latin script, Hangul letters are grouped into blocks, such as 한 _han_, each of which transcribes a syllable . That is, although the syllable 한 _han_ may look like a single character, it is actually composed of three letters: _h_, _a_, and ㄴ _n_. Each syllabic block consists of two to six letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel . These blocks are then arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom
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Hanja
HANJA ( Hangul : 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: ) is the Korean name for Chinese characters (Chinese : 漢字; pinyin : _hànzì_). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation . _Hanja-mal_ or _hanja-eo _ refers to words that can be written with hanja, and _hanmun_ (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and _kyūjitai _ characters. Only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters. Although a phonetic Korean alphabet, now known as hangul , had been created by a team of scholars commissioned in the 1440s by King Sejong the Great , it did not come into widespread use until the late 19th and early 20th century. Thus, until that time it was necessary to be fluent in reading and writing hanja in order to be literate in Korean, as the vast majority of Korean literature and most other Korean documents were written in hanja
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