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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic of Germany _Bundesrepublik Deutschland_ (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" (de facto) ANTHEM: _ Deutschlandlied _ (English: "Song of Germany") (third verse only) Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Berlin 52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383 Official language and national language German ETHNIC GROUPS (2015 ) * 7001790000000000000♠79.0% Germans
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West Germany
WEST GERMANY is the common English name for the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY or FRG (German : _Bundesrepublik Deutschland or BRD _; French : _République fédérale d'Allemagne_ or _RFA_) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War era, NATO -aligned West Germany and Warsaw Pact -aligned East Germany were divided by the Inner German border . After 1961 West Berlin was physically separated from East Berlin as well as from East Germany by the Berlin Wall . This situation ended when East Germany was dissolved and split into five states, which then joined the ten states of the Federal Republic of Germany along with the reunified city-state of Berlin . With the reunification of West and East Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states, became known simply as " Germany ". This period is referred to as the BONN REPUBLIC (_Bonner Republik_) by historians, alluding to the interwar Weimar Republic and the post-reunification Berlin Republic . The Federal Republic of Germany was established from eleven states formed in the three Allied Zones of occupation held by the United States , the United Kingdom and France (the "Western Zones")
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Flag Of Germany
The FLAG OF GERMANY is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany : black , red , and gold. The flag was first adopted as the national flag of modern Germany in 1919, during the short-lived Weimar Republic to 1933. Germany has two competing traditions of national colours, black-red-gold and black-white-red, which have played an important role in the modern history of Germany . The black-red-gold tricolour first appeared in the early 19th century and achieved prominence during the 1848 Revolutions . The short-lived Frankfurt Parliament of 1848–1850 proposed the tricolour as a flag for a united and democratic German state under a constitutional monarchy . With the formation of the short-lived Weimar Republic after World War I , the tricolour was adopted as the national flag of Germany. Sixteen years later following World War II , the tricolour was again designated as the flag of both West and East Germany divided states in 1949. The two flags were identical until 1959, when the East German flag was augmented with the coat of arms of East Germany . Since reunification on 3 October 1990, the black-red-gold tricolour has become the flag of a reunified Federal Republic of Germany
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Coat Of Arms Of Germany
The COAT OF ARMS OF GERMANY displays a black eagle with red feet, beak and tongue on a golden field, blazoned : _Or, an eagle displayed sable beaked langued and membered gules_. This is the _BUNDESADLER_ or "Federal Eagle", formerly the _ Reichsadler _ or "Imperial Eagle". It is a re-introduction of the coat of arms of the Weimar Republic (in use 1919–1935) adopted by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1950. The current official design is due to Tobias Schwab (1887–1967) and was introduced in 1928. The German Empire of 1871–1918 had re-introduced the medieval coat of arms of the Holy Roman Emperors , in use during the 13th and 14th centuries (a black single-headed eagle on a golden background), before the emperors adopted the double-headed eagle , beginning with Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1433. The single-headed Prussian Eagle (on a white background, _Argent, an eagle displayed sable_) was used as an escutcheon to represent the Prussian Kings as dynasts of the German Empire. The Weimar Republic introduced a version in which the escutcheon and other monarchical symbols were removed
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Das Lied Der Deutschen
The "DEUTSCHLANDLIED" (English: "Song of Germany", German pronunciation: ; also known as "DAS LIED DER DEUTSCHEN" or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany , whose anthem was " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990. Since World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany , only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem. The stanza's beginning, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" ("Unity and Justice and Freedom") is considered the unofficial national motto of Germany, and is inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins . The music is the hymn " Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser ", written in 1797 by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn as an anthem for the birthday of Francis II , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and later of Austria . In 1841, the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the lyrics of "Das Lied der Deutschen" as a new text for that music, counterposing the national unification of Germany to the eulogy of a monarch, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time. The song is also well known by the beginning and refrain of the first stanza, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles" ("Germany, Germany above all else"), but this has never been its title
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Deutschlandlied
The "DEUTSCHLANDLIED" (English: "Song of Germany", German pronunciation: ; also known as "DAS LIED DER DEUTSCHEN" or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany
Germany
since 1922, except in East Germany
Germany
, whose anthem was " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990. Since World War II
World War II
and the fall of Nazi Germany
Germany
, only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem. The stanza's beginning, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" ("Unity and Justice and Freedom") is considered the unofficial national motto of Germany, and is inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins . The music is the hymn " Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser ", written in 1797 by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
as an anthem for the birthday of Francis II , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and later of Austria . In 1841, the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the lyrics of "Das Lied der Deutschen" as a new text for that music, counterposing the national unification of Germany
Germany
to the eulogy of a monarch, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency . The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome . The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities , were the Inner Six ; Belgium , France , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and West Germany
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Berlin
BERLIN (/bɜːrˈlɪn, ˌbɜːr-/ , German: ( listen )) is the capital and the largest city of Germany
Germany
as well as one of its 16 constituent states . With a population of approximately 3.7 million, Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree and Havel
Havel
, it is the centre of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region , which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations , making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. Due to its location in the European Plain , Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes. First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes , Berlin
Berlin
became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945)
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Germans
GERMANS (German : _Deutsche_) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe , who share a common German ancestry, culture and history . German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term _Germans_ has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages . Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest _divided_ nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide . Of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry mainly in the United States , Brazil (mainly in the South Region of the country), Argentina , Canada , South Africa , the post-Soviet states (mainly in Russia and Kazakhstan ), and France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied (native speakers, single-ancestry ethnic Germans, partial German ancestry, etc.)
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Ethnic Groups In Europe
The ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE are the focus of European ethnology , the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe
Europe
. According to German monograph _Minderheitenrechte in Europa_ co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct PEOPLES OF EUROPE, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities . The total number of national minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms _ethnic group_, _people_ (without nation state), _nationality _, _national minority_, _ethnic minority_, _linguistic community_, _linguistic group_, _linguistic minority _ and genetic _haplogroup _ are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe
Europe

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