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Germanic Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Sto
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First Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism * 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary
Qualla Boundary
in North Carolina
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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Mysian Language
The MYSIAN LANGUAGE was spoken by Mysians inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia
Anatolia
. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages . As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group . However, a passage in Athenaeus
Athenaeus
suggests that the Mysian language was akin to the barely attested Paeonian language of Paeonia , north of Macedon
Macedon
. A short inscription that could be in Mysian and which dates from between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC was found in Üyücek village in the Tavşanlı district of Kütahya province, and seems to include Indo-European words
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards. CONTENTS * 1 Collective codes * 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 * 3 History * 4 Deficiencies * 5 References * 6 External links COLLECTIVE CODES ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes. The United States Library of Congress maintains the list of Alpha-3 codes that comprise ISO 639-5
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Messapian Language
MESSAPIAN (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/ ; also known as MESSAPIC) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy
Italy
, once spoken in the region of Apulia . It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians , the Peucetians and the Daunians . The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BCE. Messapian may have been related to the Illyrian language
Illyrian language
. Messapian became extinct after the Roman Republic conquered the region of Apulia and assimilated the inhabitants. CONTENTS * 1 Inscriptions * 2 Messapian words * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links INSCRIPTIONSFew, if any, Messapic inscriptions have been definitely deciphered
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Liburnian Language
The LIBURNIAN LANGUAGE is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians
Liburnians
, who occupied Liburnia in classical times. Classification of the Liburnian language
Liburnian language
is not clearly established; it is reckoned as an Indo-European language with significant proportion of the Pre-Indo-European elements from wider area of the ancient Mediterranean . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Onomastics * 2.1 Anthroponyms
Anthroponyms
* 2.2 Theonyms * 2.3 Toponyms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources CLASSIFICATIONNo writings in Liburnian are known. The only Liburnian linguistic remains are Liburnian toponyms and some family and personal names in Liburnia, in Latinized form from the 1st century AD
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Iranian Languages
The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
, which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are known as Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
. Historical Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan
Avestan
(the language of the Avesta
Avesta
). Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
included Middle Persian (a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian
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Illyrian Languages
The ILLYRIAN /ɪˈlɪriən/ languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans
Balkans
in former times by groups identified as Illyrians
Illyrians
: Ardiaei , Delmatae , Pannonii , Autariates , Taulanti (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria
Illyria
). Some sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Illyrian and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because there are no examples of ancient Illyrian literature surviving (aside from the Messapian writings if they can be considered Illyrian), it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family
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Indo-Iranian Languages
The INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES, or INDO-IRANIC LANGUAGES, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family . It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Ossetian ) and the Balkans
Balkans
(Romani/Gypsy ) eastward to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Sarikoli ) and Assam
Assam
(Assamese ), and south to the Maldives (Maldivian ). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian —also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan , Iranian , and Nuristani . Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic , is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch
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Paeonian Language
The PAEONIAN LANGUAGE is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians , whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace
Thrace
. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources: * monapos, monaipos, the European bison
European bison
* tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias * paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon (Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Suriname
Coordinates : 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56 Republic
Republic
of Suriname Republiek Suriname
Suriname
(Dutch ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "
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Caribbean Netherlands
The CARIBBEAN NETHERLANDS (Dutch : Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands
Netherlands
that are located in the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. They consist of the islands of BONAIRE , SINT EUSTATIUS , and SABA , although the term " Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands" is sometimes used to refer to all of the islands in the Dutch Caribbean . In legislation, the three islands are also known as the BES ISLANDS (an acronym of their names). The islands are currently classified as public bodies in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and as overseas countries and territories of the European Union
European Union
; thus, EU law does not automatically apply
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Anglo-America
ANGLO-AMERICA most often refers to a region in the Americas
Americas
in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact. Anglo
Anglo
-America is distinct from Latin America
Latin America
, a region of the Americas
Americas
where Romance languages
Romance languages
(Spanish , Portuguese and French ) are prevalent
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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities List * São Paulo * Lima
Lima
* Mexico City
Mexico City
* New York City
New York City
* Bogotá * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Santiago
Santiago
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Caracas * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
CIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The AMERICAS (also collectively called AMERICA) encompass the totality of the continents of North and South America
South America
. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World
New World

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