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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Deutsch (other)
DEUTSCH or DEUTSCHE may refer to: * DEUTSCH: German language , in German * DEUTSCHE: German term for female or plural demonym for Germans
Germans
* Deutsch (word) , originally referring to the Germanic vernaculars of the Early Middle AgesCONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Businesses and organisations * 3 Other uses * 4 See also
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German-speaking Europe
Approximate distribution of native German speakers (assuming a rounded total of 95 million) worldwide. Germany (78.3%) Austria (8.4%) Switzerland (5.6%) Italy (0.4%) Other (7.3%) The following is a LIST OF THE TERRITORIAL ENTITIES WHERE GERMAN IS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE . It includes countries, which have German as (one of) their nationwide official language(s), as well as dependent territories with German as a co-official language. CONTENTS* 1 German as an official language * 1.1 Dependent entities * 2 Other legal statuses * 3 International institutions * 4 Notes * 5 References GERMAN AS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGEGerman is the official language of six countries, all of which lie in central Europe. These countries (with the addition of South Tyrol ) also form the Council for German Orthography and are referred to as the GERMAN SPRACHRAUM ( German language area)
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German As A Minority Language
In addition to those parts of Europe where German is an official language , teaching of the German language as well as German-speaking minorities are present in many countries on all six inhabited continents . Mostly depending on the inclusion or exclusion of certain varieties with a disputed status as separate languages (e.g., Low German/Plautdietsch , ), it is estimated that approximately 90–95 million people speak German as a first language , 10-25 million as a second language , and 75–100 million as a foreign language . This would imply approximately 175-220 million German speakers worldwide
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Germanic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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West Germanic Languages
The WEST GERMANIC LANGUAGES constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages). The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English , German , and Dutch . The family also includes other High and Low German languages and dialects including Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
and Yiddish , in addition to other Franconian and Ingvaeonic languages such as the Frisian languages , Scots and Afrikaans (which are closely related to but separate from English and Dutch, respectively). Additionally, several creoles , patois , and pidgins are based on Dutch and English as they were languages of colonial empires
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High German
The HIGH GERMAN LANGUAGES or HIGH GERMAN DIALECTS (German : _Hochdeutsche Mundarten_) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany , Austria , Liechtenstein , Switzerland , and Luxembourg , as well as in neighboring portions of France ( Alsace and northern Lorraine ), Italy ( South Tyrol ), the Czech Republic ( Bohemia ), and Poland ( Upper Silesia ). They are also spoken in diaspora in Romania , Russia , the United States , Brazil , Argentina , Mexico , Chile , and Namibia
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German Standard German
GERMAN STANDARD GERMAN, STANDARD GERMAN OF GERMANY or HIGH GERMAN OF GERMANY is the variety of Standard German that is written and spoken in Germany . It is the variety of German most commonly taught to foreigners. It is not uniform, which means it has considerable regional variation. Anthony Fox asserts that British English is more standardized than German Standard German
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Swiss Standard German
SWISS STANDARD GERMAN (German : _Schweizer Standarddeutsch_), or SWISS HIGH GERMAN (German : _Schweizer Hochdeutsch_ or _Schweizerhochdeutsch_), referred to by the Swiss as _Schriftdeutsch_, or _Hochdeutsch_, is one of four official languages in Switzerland , besides French , Italian and Romansh . It is a variety of Standard German , used in the German-speaking part of Switzerland . It is mainly written, and rather less often spoken. Swiss Standard German is not a German dialect , but a variety of standard German. It is not to be confused with Swiss German , an umbrella term for the various Alemannic German dialects (in the sense of "traditional regional varieties") that are the default everyday languages in German-speaking Switzerland. German is a pluricentric language
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Austrian Standard German
AUSTRIAN GERMAN (German : _Österreichisches Deutsch_), AUSTRIAN STANDARD GERMAN, STANDARD AUSTRIAN GERMAN (German : _Österreichisches Standarddeutsch_) or AUSTRIAN HIGH GERMAN (German : _Österreichisches Hochdeutsch_), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria . It has the highest sociolinguistic prestige locally, as it is the variation used in the media and for other formal situations. In less formal situations, Austrians tend to use forms closer to or identical with the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects , traditionally spoken – but rarely written – in Austria
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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German Alphabet
GERMAN ORTHOGRAPHY is the orthography used in writing the German language , which is largely phonemic . However, it shows many instances of spellings that are historic or analogous to other spellings rather than phonemic. The pronunciation of almost every word can be derived from its spelling once the spelling rules are known, but the opposite is not generally the case. Today, German orthography is regulated by the Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung (Council for German Orthography), composed of representatives from most German-speaking countries
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