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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Deutsch (other)
DEUTSCH or DEUTSCHE may refer to: * Deutsch: The German language , in German * Deutsche: Germans
Germans
, as a feminine or plural demonym * Deutsch (word) , originally referring to the Germanic vernaculars of the Early Middle AgesCONTENTS * 1 Businesses and organisations * 2 Other uses * 3 See also BUSINESSES AND ORGANISATIONS * Deutsch Group , an international connector manufacturer * Deutsch Inc. , an American advertising agency * Andr
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German-speaking Europe
Approximate distribution of native German speakers (assuming a rounded total of 95 million) worldwide. Germany (78.3%) Austria (8.4%) Switzerland (5.6%) Italy (0.4%) Other (7.3%) The following is a LIST OF THE TERRITORIAL ENTITIES WHERE GERMAN IS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE . It includes countries, which have German as (one of) their nationwide official language(s), as well as dependent territories with German as a co-official language. CONTENTS* 1 German as an official language * 1.1 Dependent entities * 2 Other legal statuses * 3 International institutions * 4 Notes * 5 References GERMAN AS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGEGerman is the official language of six countries, all of which lie in central Europe. These countries (with the addition of South Tyrol ) also form the Council for German Orthography and are referred to as the GERMAN SPRACHRAUM ( German language area)
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German As A Minority Language
In addition to those parts of Europe where German is an official language , teaching of the German language as well as German-speaking minorities are present in many countries on all six inhabited continents . Mostly depending on the inclusion or exclusion of certain varieties with a disputed status as separate languages (e.g., Low German/Plautdietsch , ), it is estimated that approximately 90–95 million people speak German as a first language , 10-25 million as a second language , and 75–100 million as a foreign language . This would imply approximately 175-220 million German speakers worldwide. CONTENTS * 1 German as official language * 2 German as foreign language * 3 German as minority language * 3.1 Latin America * 3.1.1 Argentina * 3.1.2 Brazil * 3.1.3 Chile * 3.1.4 Colombia * 3.1.5 Costa Rica * 3.2 Australia * 3.3 Namibia * 3.4 South Africa * 3.5 United States * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links GERMAN AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE Main article: List of territorial entities where German is an official language GERMAN AS FOREIGN LANGUAGEIn the Early Modern period , German varieties were a _lingua franca _ of Central, Eastern and Northern Europe ( Hanseatic League )
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition . This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption ), to a new language environment
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Germanic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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West Germanic Languages
The WEST GERMANIC LANGUAGES constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages). The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English , German , and Dutch . The family also includes other High and Low German languages and dialects including Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
and Yiddish , in addition to other Franconian and Ingvaeonic languages such as the Frisian languages , Scots and Afrikaans (which are closely related to but separate from English and Dutch, respectively). Additionally, several creoles , patois , and pidgins are based on Dutch and English as they were languages of colonial empires. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Existence of a West Germanic proto-language * 1.3 The reconstruction of Proto-West-Germanic * 1.4 Dating Early West Germanic * 1.5 Middle Ages * 2 Family tree * 3 Comparison of phonological and morphological features * 4 Phonology * 5 West Germanic vocabulary * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links HISTORY The Germanic languages in Europe: NORTH GERMANIC LANGUAGES Icelandic Faroese Norwegian Swedish Danish WEST GERMANIC LANGUAGES Scots English Frisian Dutch Low German German Dots indicate areas where multilingualism is common
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High German
The HIGH GERMAN LANGUAGES or HIGH GERMAN DIALECTS (German : _Hochdeutsche Mundarten_) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany , Austria , Liechtenstein , Switzerland , and Luxembourg , as well as in neighboring portions of France ( Alsace and northern Lorraine ), Italy ( South Tyrol ), the Czech Republic ( Bohemia ), and Poland ( Upper Silesia ). They are also spoken in diaspora in Romania , Russia , the United States , Brazil , Argentina , Mexico , Chile , and Namibia . The High German languages are marked by the High German consonant shift , separating them from Low German and Low Franconian (Dutch ) within the continental West Germanic dialect continuum
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German Standard German
GERMAN STANDARD GERMAN, STANDARD GERMAN OF GERMANY or HIGH GERMAN OF GERMANY is the variety of Standard German that is written and spoken in Germany . It is the variety of German most commonly taught to foreigners. It is not uniform, which means it has considerable regional variation. Anthony Fox asserts that British English is more standardized than German Standard German. REFERENCES * ^ _A_ _B_ Russ (1994 :7, 61–66, 70, 72, 84–86, 89–91, 96) * ^ _A_ _B_ Sanders (2010 :194 and 196–200) * ^ Fox (1990 :292) * ^ Dürscheid & Giger (2010 :176) * ^ Horvath Giger, Nadio (2010), "Variation in the case system of German – linguistic analysis and optimality theory", in Lenz, Alexandra N.; Plewnia, Albrecht, _Grammar between Norm and Variation_ (PDF), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang , ISBN 978-3-631-61004-6 * Fox, Anthony (1990), _The Structure of German_, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., ISBN 0-19-815821-1 * Horvath, Barbara M.; Vaughan, Paul (1991), _Community languages: a handbook_, Multilingual Matters, Multilingual Matters, ISBN 978-1853590917 * Russ, Charles (1994), _The German Language Today: A Linguistic Introduction_, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-203-42577-4 * Sanders, Ruth H
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Swiss Standard German
SWISS STANDARD GERMAN (German : _Schweizer Standarddeutsch_), or SWISS HIGH GERMAN (German : _Schweizer Hochdeutsch_ or _Schweizerhochdeutsch_), referred to by the Swiss as _Schriftdeutsch_, or _Hochdeutsch_, is one of four official languages in Switzerland , besides French , Italian and Romansh . It is a variety of Standard German , used in the German-speaking part of Switzerland . It is mainly written, and rather less often spoken. Swiss Standard German is not a German dialect , but a variety of standard German. It is not to be confused with Swiss German , an umbrella term for the various Alemannic German dialects (in the sense of "traditional regional varieties") that are the default everyday languages in German-speaking Switzerland. German is a pluricentric language . In contrast with other local varieties of German, Swiss Standard German has distinctive features in all linguistic domains: not only in phonology , but also in vocabulary , syntax , morphology and orthography . These characteristics of Swiss Standard German are called _Helvetisms _. Besides influences from Alemannic German, those characteristics include extensive use of loan words from Romance languages , especially French
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Austrian Standard German
AUSTRIAN GERMAN (German : _Österreichisches Deutsch_), AUSTRIAN STANDARD GERMAN, STANDARD AUSTRIAN GERMAN (German : _Österreichisches Standarddeutsch_) or AUSTRIAN HIGH GERMAN (German : _Österreichisches Hochdeutsch_), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria . It has the highest sociolinguistic prestige locally, as it is the variation used in the media and for other formal situations. In less formal situations, Austrians tend to use forms closer to or identical with the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects , traditionally spoken – but rarely written – in Austria. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 General situation of German * 3 Standard German in Austria * 3.1 Former spoken standard * 3.2 Special written forms * 3.3 European Union * 3.4 Grammar * 3.4.1 Verbs * 3.5 Vocabulary * 4 Dialects * 4.1 Classification * 4.2 Regional accents * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources HISTORY Austrian German has its beginning in the mid-18th century, when empress Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II introduced compulsory schooling (in 1774) and several reforms of administration in their multilingual Habsburg empire . At the time, the written standard was _Oberdeutsche Schreibsprache_, which was highly influenced by the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects of Austria
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population). Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western and Central European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world
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German Alphabet
GERMAN ORTHOGRAPHY is the orthography used in writing the German language , which is largely phonemic . However, it shows many instances of spellings that are historic or analogous to other spellings rather than phonemic. The pronunciation of almost every word can be derived from its spelling once the spelling rules are known, but the opposite is not generally the case. Today, German orthography is regulated by the Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung (Council for German Orthography), composed of representatives from most German-speaking countries
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