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German Confederation
The German Confederation
Confederation
(German: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.[1] Most historians have judged the Confederation
Confederation
to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state.[2] The Confederation
Confederation
collapsed due to the rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, warfare in the several European revolutions of 1848, the 1848–1849 German revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention
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State (polity)
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.[1][2] Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. Some states are sovereign
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Slovenia
Coordinates: 46°07′N 14°49′E / 46.117°N 14.817°E / 46.117; 14.817 Republic
Republic
of SloveniaRepublika Slovenija  (Slovene) Flag Coat of arms Anthem: Zdravljica (English: "A Toast")[i]Location of Slovenia (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityLjubljana46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.050°N 14.500°E / 46.050; 14.500Official languagesSlovene[ii]Ethnic gr
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Croatia
Coordinates: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500 Republic
Republic
of CroatiaRepublika Hrvatska  (Croatian)[a] Flag Coat of arms Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"(English: "Our Beautiful Homeland")Location of Croatia (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest city Zagreb45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000Official languagesCroatian&#
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: Nederland, [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)), informally Holland,[11] is a country in Northwestern Europe with some overseas territories in the Caribbean. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany
Germany
to the east, Belgium
Belgium
to the south, and the North Sea
North Sea
to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea
North Sea
with those countries and the United Kingdom.[12] Together with three island territories in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch and a secondary official language in the province of Friesland
Friesland
is West Frisian
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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk -/ (listen);[12] Czech: Česká republika [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka] (listen)),[13] also known by its short-form name, Czechia[14] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ (listen); Czech: Česko [ˈtʃɛsko] (listen)), is a country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia
Slovakia
to the east, and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[15] The Czech Republic
Republic
is a landlocked country with a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,866 square kilometers (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.7 million inhabitants
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Vereinsthaler
The Vereinsthaler
Vereinsthaler
(German: [fɛɐ̯ˈʔaɪnsˌtaːlɐ], union thaler) was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austrian Empire in the years before German unification.This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Contents1 Introduction 2 Use in different states 3 Withdrawal 4 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] The Vereinsthaler
Vereinsthaler
was introduced in 1857 to replace the previous standard Thaler
Thaler
(based on the Prussian Thaler) which was very slightly heavier
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Conventionsthaler
The Conventionsthaler was a standard silver coin of the Holy Roman Empire. It was introduced in 1754 and contained one tenth of a Cologne mark of silver or about 23.39 grams. The Conventionstaler was used as a standard in most of the Empire, with a variety of subdivisions being used, including the Reichsthaler, Austro-Hungarian Gulden, South German Gulden, Groschen, Pfennig
Pfennig
and Heller
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Reichsthaler
The Reichsthaler (German: [ˈʁaɪçsˌtaːlɐ]) was a standard Thaler of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1566 by the Leipzig convention. It was also the name of a unit of account in northern Germany and of a silver coin issued by Prussia.Contents1 Reichsthaler coin 2 Reichsthaler unit of account 3 Prussian Reichsthaler 4 See also Reichsthaler coin[edit] The Leipzig
Leipzig
convention set the Reichsthaler as a coin containing ​1⁄9 of a Cologne mark of silver. The various German states within the Empire issued Reichsthaler together with smaller coins according to whatever system of subdivisions they chose
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Jewish
Jews
Jews
(Hebrew: יְהוּדִים‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group[12] and a nation[13][14][15] originating from the Israelites,[16][17][18] or Hebrews,[19][20] of the Ancient Near East. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated,[21] as
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Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second-largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of al
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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