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Geothermal Desalination
GEOTHERMAL DESALINATION is a process under development for the production of fresh water using heat energy . Claimed benefits of this method of desalination are that it requires less maintenance than reverse osmosis membranes and that the primary energy input is from geothermal heat , which is a low-environmental-impact source of energy. Circa 1995, Douglas Firestone from Nevada
Nevada
devised the use of geothermal water directly as a source for desalination. In 1998, several individuals began working with evaporation/condensation air loop water desalination . The experiment was successful and a proof of concept , proving that geothermal waters could be used as process water to produce potable water in 2001. In 2005 to 2009 testing was done in a sixth prototype of a device referred to as a delta t device, a closed air loop, atmospheric pressure, evaporation condensation loop geothermally powered desalination device
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Geothermal Power In Canada
The largest conventional resources for GEOTHERMAL POWER IN CANADA are located in British Columbia, Yukon and Alberta; these regions also contain potential for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). In 2007 it was estimated that geothermal energy could meet half of British Columbia's electricity needs. Canada's government (which officially notes some 30,000 earth-heat installations for providing space heating to Canadian residential and commercial buildings) reports that the most advanced project exists as a test geothermal-electrical site in the Meager Mountain -Pebble Creek area of British Columbia
British Columbia
, where a 100 - 300 MW facility could be developed. The remaining Canadian provinces and territories contain the potential for Enhanced Geothermal. Low temperature - or direct heat potential (sometimes called geothermal heating) exist everywhere in Canada
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Geothermal Power In Australia
GEOTHERMAL POWER IN AUSTRALIA is little used but growing. There are known and potential locations near the centre of the country that have been shown to contain hot granites at depth which hold good potential for development of geothermal energy . Exploratory geothermal wells have been drilled to test for the presence of high temperature geothermal reservoir rocks and such hot granites were detected. As a result, projects will eventuate in the coming years and more exploration is expected to find new locations. CONTENTS * 1 Exploration * 2 Projects * 2.1 Paralana * 2.2 Cooper Basin * 2.3 Jurien-Woodada * 2.4 Otway Basin * 3 Companies * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EXPLORATIONThere is exploration being conducted in all states and the Northern Territory but there is no commercial production of geothermal energy in Australia
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Geothermal Power In Chile
CHILE represents one of the largest undeveloped GEOTHERMAL areas of the world. Despite Chile\'s good economic performance in the late 1980s and 1990s, geothermal energy did not develop, and Chile has been surpassed by other Latin American countries such as El Salvador and Costa Rica in terms of geothermal development and technology. Currently Chile does not produce any geothermal power. The first geothermal explorations in Chile were carried out by Italians living in the city of Antofagasta in 1908 but it was not until 1968 that systematic exploration started in the north of the country. These later explorations occurred amidst a global wave of research and development of the geothermal power. The exploration were carried out after an agreement between the Government of Chile and United Nations Development Programme were state agency CORFO (Production Development Corporation) created a comité to direct and carry out exploration in the northern regions of Chile
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Geothermal Power In China
Geothermal exploration began in China in the 1970s. It was initially handled by national bodies with public investments, and productive wells were transferred free of charge to the final user. Since the mid-1980s, under the framework of privatization and liberalization of the economy, national investment in exploration has been reduced. No new plants have been commissioned in the period 2000–2005 (Zheng et al., 2005; Battocletti et al., 2000). The only electricity-producing fields are located in Tibet. According to the "2005 Chinese Geothermal Environment Bulletin" by China's Ministry of Land and Resources , the direct utilization of geothermal energy in China will reach 13.76 cubic meters per second, and the geothermal energy will reach 10,779 megawatts, ranking first in the world. However this programme has not been started so far
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Geothermal Power In Denmark
Denmark has two geothermal district heating plants, one in Thisted which started in 1988, and one in Copenhagen which started in 2005. They produce no electricity
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Jermaghbyur Geothermal Power Plant
The JERMAGHBYUR GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT will be Armenia
Armenia
's largest geothermal power plant having an installed electric capacity of 150 MW . It will be situated in Syunik Province of Armenia. SEE ALSO * Armenia
Armenia
portal * Geology portal * Renewable energy portal * Karkar Geothermal Power Plant REFERENCES * ^ New Geothermal Plant for Armenia * ^ http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/armenia-to-start-geothermal-exploration-at-syunik/ This article about a power station is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Geothermal Gradient
GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth
Earth
's interior. Away from tectonic plate boundaries, it is about 25 °C PER KM OF DEPTH (1 °F per 70 feet of depth) near the surface in most of the world. Strictly speaking, geo-thermal necessarily refers to the Earth
Earth
but the concept may be applied to other planets. A line tracing the gradient through the planetary body is called a GEOTHERM on Earth
Earth
and other terrestrial planets. On the Moon it is called a SELENOTHERM. The Earth\'s internal heat comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion , heat produced through radioactive decay , and possibly heat from other sources. The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth
Earth
are potassium-40 , uranium-238 , uranium-235 , and thorium-232
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering , the PARTS-PER NOTATION is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities , e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction . Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement . Commonly used are PPM (parts-per-million, 10−6), PPB (parts-per-billion, 10−9), PPT (parts-per-trillion , 10−12) and PPQ (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy * 2 Parts-per expressions * 3 Criticism * 3.1 Long and short scales * 3.2 Thousand
Thousand
vs. trillion * 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Osmoregulation
OSMOREGULATION is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism 's body fluids , detected by osmoreceptors , to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution ) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis . The higher the osmotic pressure of a solution, the more water tends to move into it. Pressure must be exerted on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane to prevent diffusion of water by osmosis from the side containing pure water
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Geothermal Energy
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY is heat energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions). The geothermal gradient , which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη (ge), meaning earth, and θερμος (thermos), meaning hot. Earth\'s internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat loss from Earth's formation. Temperatures at the core–mantle boundary may reach over 4000 °C (7,200 °F)
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Geothermal Heating
GEOTHERMAL HEATING is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating some applications. Humans have taken advantage of geothermal heat this way since the Paleolithic era. Approximately seventy countries made direct use of a total of 270 PJ of geothermal heating in 2004. As of 2007, 28 GW of geothermal heating capacity is installed around the world, satisfying 0.07% of global primary energy consumption. Thermal efficiency is high since no energy conversion is needed, but capacity factors tend to be low (around 20%) since the heat is mostly needed in the winter. Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy
originates from the heat retained within the Earth since the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises close to the surface of the Earth
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Geothermal Power In El Salvador
GEOTHERMAL POWER IN EL SALVADOR represents 25% of the country's total electricity production. El Salvador is one of the top ten geothermal energy producers in the world. Since 1975, the Ahuachapán geothermal field has been in continuous and successful commercial operation. Since 1992, the Berlin geothermal field is under commercial production, with the installation of two units. Each one with 5 MWe power plants. SEE ALSO * El Salvador portal * Energy portal * Electricity sector in El Salvador * Renewable energy by country REFERENCES * ^ "Generacion Electricidad El Salvador", IGA, retrieved 2011-08-30 * ^ "CENTROAMÉRICA: MERCADOS MAYORISTAS DE ELECTRICIDAD Y TRANSACCIONES EN EL MERCADO ELÉCTRICO REGIONAL, 2010" (PDF), CEPAL, retrieved 2011-08-30 This article about energy, its collection, its distribution, or its uses is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This El Salvador –related article is a stub
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Geothermal Power In Ethiopia
ENERGY IN ETHIOPIA is energy and electricity production, consumption, transport, exportation and importation in Ethiopia
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Klaipėda Geothermal Demonstration Plant
The KLAIPėDA GEOTHERMAL DEMONSTRATION PLANT is a geothermal heating plant in Klaipėda , Lithuania , constructed during the late 1990s and early 2000s. It was the first geothermal heating plant in the Baltic Sea region. Its purpose was to reduce carbon dioxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrogen oxide , and particulate emissions in the area, as well as to reduce Lithuania's dependence on foreign energy sources. The plant supplies district heating to the city. Construction was financed by a loan from the World Bank (US$5.9 million) and a grant from the Global Environment Facility (US$6.9 million). The Danish state company Dansk Olie og Naturgas (now DONG Energy ) provided technical support, and Enterprise Geoterma (EG) served as the implementing agency. The total cost of the plant was US$19.5 million
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Geothermal Energy In Lebanon
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN LEBANON is a branch of the energy industry , expanding quickly over the last several years. According to a UNDP assessment (CEDRO project), the geothermal energy available in Lebanon is 1,000 million megawatt hours (70 000 fold the amount of energy needed in Lebanon per year). The study includes a geothermal atlas for the country and estimates the current overall potential of geothermal heat and power generation. CONTENTS * 1 Geothermal power * 2 Geothermal for cooling and heating * 2.1 Implementation * 2.2 Quality and cost efficiency * 3 See also * 4 References GEOTHERMAL POWERLebanese energy and water ministry intend to meet 0.2 percent target of Lebanon’s total power energy needs with geothermal sources by 2025
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