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George Vernon Hudson
GEORGE VERNON HUDSON (20 April 1867 – 5 April 1946) was a British -born New Zealand award-winning entomologist and astronomer . He won the Hector Memorial Medal
Hector Memorial Medal
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Personal life * 3 Works * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in London
London
, England, on Easter Saturday , 1867 Hudson was the sixth child of Charles Hudson, an artist and stained-glass window designer and Emily Jane Carnal By the age of 14 he had built up a collection of British insects, and had published a paper in The Entomologist. In 1881 Hudson moved with his father to Nelson , New Zealand. He worked on a farm, and in 1883, aged 16, he began working at the post office in Wellington
Wellington
, where he eventually became chief clerk, retiring in 1918. Hudson was a member of the 1907 Sub-Antarctic Islands Scientific Expedition . The main aim of the expedition was to extend the magnetic survey of New Zealand by investigating the Auckland and Campbell islands but botanical, biological and zoological surveys were also conducted. The voyage also resulted in rescue of the castaways of the shipwreck the Dundonald in the Auckland Islands. Hudson is credited with proposing modern-day daylight saving time . His shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects, and led him to value after-hours daylight
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George Hudson (other)
GEORGE HUDSON (1800–1871) was an English railway financier. GEORGE HUDSON may also refer to: * George Hudson (footballer) (born 1937), player for Coventry City F.C. * George Hudson (Canadian football) (born 1976), Canadian professional Canadian football player * George LeRoy Hudson (fl. 1913–1926), Canadian politician * George Hudson (entomologist) (1867–1946), New Zealand entomologist and astronomer * George Bickersteth Hudson , British Member of Parliament for Hitchin , 1892–1906 * George Hudson (cricketer) (1905–1981), English cricketer * George Hudson (musician) , American jazz trumpeter, see de:George Hudson (Jazzmusiker) This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Hudson_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Auckland Islands
The AUCKLAND ISLANDS (Māori : _Motu Maha_ or _Maungahuka_) are an archipelago of New Zealand , lying 465 kilometres (290 mi) south of the South Island . It includes Auckland Island , Adams Island , Enderby Island , Disappointment Island , Ewing Island , Rose Island , Dundas Island and Green Island, with a combined area of 625 km2 (240 sq mi). The islands have no permanent human inhabitants. Ecologically, the Auckland Islands form part of the Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion . Along with other New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands , they were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998
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1907 Sub-Antarctic Islands Scientific Expedition
THE 1907 SUB-ANTARCTIC ISLANDS SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION was a New Zealand scientific expedition organised by the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury (now known as the Canterbury branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand
New Zealand
). The main aim of the expedition was to extend the magnetic survey of New Zealand
New Zealand
by investigating the Auckland and Campbell Islands but botanical, biological and zoological surveys were also conducted. CONTENTS * 1 Expedition preparation * 2 Expedition members * 2.1 Magnetic survey * 2.2 Botany survey * 2.3 Geology survey * 2.4 Zoology survey * 2.5 Other participants * 2.6 Other proposed participants * 3 The expedition * 4 Findings * 5 References EXPEDITION PREPARATIONThe planning committee of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury approached the various branches of the New Zealand
New Zealand
Institute for support and armed with this, approached the New Zealand
New Zealand
Minister of Marine, John A. Millar , for possible transport. On being informed that neither of the New Zealand
New Zealand
Government steam ships would be available, the committee sent a delegation to the Acting Premier , the Honourable William Hall-Jones
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Entomology
ENTOMOLOGY (from Greek ἔντομον, _entomon_ "insect"; and -λογία, _-logia_) is the scientific study of insects , a branch of zoology . In the past the term "insect" was more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla , such as arachnids , myriapods , earthworms , land snails , and slugs . This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology , entomology is a taxon -based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect-related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics , behavior , biomechanics , biochemistry , systematics , physiology , developmental biology , ecology , morphology , and paleontology . At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth
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Astronomer
An ASTRONOMER is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside of the scope of Earth
Earth
. They look at stars , planets , moons , comets and galaxies , as well as many other celestial objects — either in observational astronomy , in analyzing the data or in theoretical astronomy . Examples of topics or fields astronomers work on include: planetary science , solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars , or the formation of galaxies . There are also related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology which studies the Universe
Universe
as a whole. Astronomers usually fit into two types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers make direct observations of planets, stars and galaxies, and analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed. Because it takes millions to billions of years for a system of stars or a galaxy to complete a life cycle, astronomers have to observe snapshots of different systems at unique points in their evolution to determine how they form, evolve and die. They use this data to create models or simulations to theorize how different celestial bodies work. There are further subcategories inside these two main branches of astronomy such as planetary astronomy, galactic astronomy or physical cosmology
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Hector Memorial Medal
The HECTOR MEDAL (formerly known as the HECTOR MEMORIAL MEDAL) is a science award given by the Royal Society of New Zealand in memory of Sir James Hector to researchers working in New Zealand. It is awarded annually in rotation for different sciences – currently there are three: chemical sciences; physical sciences; mathematical and information sciences. It is given to a researcher who "has undertaken work of great scientific or technological merit and has made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of the particular branch of science." It was previously rotated through more fields of science – in 1918 they were: botany, chemistry, ethnology, geology, physics (including mathematics and astronomy), zoology (including animal physiology). For a few years it was awarded biennially – it was not awarded in 2000, 2002 or 2004. In 1991 it was overtaken by the Rutherford Medal as the highest award given by the Royal Society of New Zealand. The obverse of the medal bears the head of James Hector and the reverse a Māori snaring a huia . The last confirmed sighting of a living huia predates the award of the medal by three years
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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Easter Saturday
EASTER SATURDAY, on the Christian
Christian
calendar, is the Saturday following the festival of Easter
Easter
, the Saturday of Easter
Easter
or Bright Week. In the liturgy of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
it is the last day of Easter
Easter
Week , sometimes referred to as the SATURDAY OF EASTER WEEK or SATURDAY IN EASTER WEEK. In the liturgy of Eastern Christianity it is the last day of Bright Week
Bright Week
, and called BRIGHT SATURDAY, THE BRIGHT AND HOLY SEPTAVE SATURDAY OF EASTER EVE, or THE BRIGHT AND HOLY SEPTAVE PASCHAL ARTOS AND OCTOECHOES SATURDAY OF ISCARIOT\'S BYZANTINE EASTER EVE. Easter
Easter
Saturday is the day preceding the Octave Day of Easter
Easter
(also known as St. Thomas Sunday
Thomas Sunday
or Divine Mercy Sunday)
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Nelson, New Zealand
NELSON (Māori : WHAKATū) is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay . Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island
South Island
and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand, It was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858. Nelson city is bordered to the west and south-west by the Tasman District Council and the north-east, east and south-east by the Marlborough District Council. The city does not include Richmond, the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city and the geographical centre of New Zealand. When combined with the town of Richmond which has close to 14,000 residents, Nelson is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population. Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival. The annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars
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Wellington
WELLINGTON /ˈwɛlɪŋtən/ (Māori : _Te Whanganui-a-Tara_) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand , with 405,000 residents. It is at the south-western tip of the North Island , between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range . Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region , which also includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa . It is the world's windiest city, with an average wind speed of over 26 km/h, and the world\'s southernmost capital of a sovereign state . The Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities : Wellington City , on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour , contains the central business district and about half the population; Porirua on Porirua Harbour to the north is notable for its large Māori and Pacific Island communities; Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt are largely suburban areas to the northeast, together known as the Hutt Valley . Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand
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Campbell Island Group
The CAMPBELL ISLAND GROUP (or CAMPBELL ISLANDS) is a group of subantarctic islands , belonging to New Zealand
New Zealand
. It lies about 600 km south of Stewart Island
Island
. The group has a total area of 113.31 km2 (43.75 sq mi), consisting of one big island, Campbell Island
Island
(112.68 km2 or 43.51 sq mi), and several small islets , notably Dent Island (0.23 km2 or 0.089 sq mi), Isle de Jeanette Marie (0.11 km2 or 0.042 sq mi, Folly Island
Island
(or Folly Islands), Jacquemart Island
Island
(0.19 km2 or 0.073 sq mi), and Monowai Island
Island
(also known as Lion Rock, 0.08 km2 or 0.031 sq mi). Ecologically, they are part of the Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion . The group is one of five subantarctic island groups collectively designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
. CONTENTS * 1 Important Bird Area * 2 Geography * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links IMPORTANT BIRD AREAThe whole Campbell Island
Island
group has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International because of its significance as a breeding site for several species of seabirds as well as the endemic Campbell teal and Campbell snipe
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Dundonald (ship)
DUNDONALD was a steel, four-masted barque of 2,205 tons launched in Belfast
Belfast
in 1891. She was wrecked in 1907 in the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands . Only 15 of her 28 crew survived; they were rescued seven months later by a scientific expedition. CONTENTS * 1 Wreck * 2 Shipwrecked crew * 3 Survival * 4 Rescue * 5 References * 6 External links * 7 Additional sources WRECKAfter setting sail from Sydney
Sydney
, Australia
Australia
, on 17 February 1907, bound for Falmouth , England
England
, with a cargo of wheat , she was forced onto rocks during a squall on 7 March 1907 on the west coast of Disappointment Island , 5 miles northwest of the Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands
, 180 miles south of New Zealand
New Zealand
, and sank. SHIPWRECKED CREWOnly 17 members of the 28 crew managed to escape the wreck and reach shore. One man, Walter Low, made the shore but slipped off the cliff back into the sea and was never seen again. Another, the mate Jabez Peters, died of exposure on 25 March 1907, eighteen days after the disaster. He was buried in the sand, but in November 1907, members of the Hinemoa 's crew exhumed his body and re-interred it at the Hardwicke cemetery at Port Ross , in Erebus Cove, in the Auckland Islands; Peters' father and brother were also lost at sea in New Zealand waters
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of _The Journal of Paris _, suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . The practice has both advocates and critics. Some early proponents of DST aimed to reduce evening use of incandescent lighting —once a primary use of electricity —today's heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST affects energy use is limited and contradictory
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Shift Work
SHIFT WORK is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as _ 24/7 _). The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties. The term "shift work" includes both long-term night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts. In medicine and epidemiology, shift work is considered a risk factor for some health problems in some individuals, as disruption to circadian rhythms may increase the probability of developing cardiovascular disease , cognitive impairment, diabetes , and obesity , among other conditions. Shift work can also contribute to strain in marital, family, and personal relationships
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