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Geomyidae
Cratogeomys Geomys Orthogeomys Pappogeomys Thomomys Zygogeomys POCKET GOPHERS, commonly referred to as GOPHERS, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae. About 35 species of gophers live in Central and North America. They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. Gophers are endemic to North and Central America. The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family . These are the "true" gophers, but several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae are often called gophers, as well. The origin of the word "gopher" is uncertain. French gaufre, meaning waffle , has been suggested, on account of the gopher's tunnels resembling the honeycomb-like pattern of holes in a waffle. Another suggestion is that the word is of Muskogean origin
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Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The SIERRA NEVADA (/siˌɛrə nɪˈvædə, -ˈvɑːdə/ , Spanish: , snowy saw range ) is a mountain range in the Western United States , between the Central Valley of California
California
and the Basin and Range Province . The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California
California
, although the Carson Range
Carson Range
spur lies primarily in Nevada
Nevada
. The Sierra Nevada
Nevada
is part of the American Cordillera , a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an almost continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America
North America
, Central America , South America
South America
and Antarctica
Antarctica
. The Sierra runs 400 miles (640 km) north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles (110 km) across east-to-west
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Soil Biomantle
The SOIL BIOMANTLE can be described and defined in several ways. Most simply, the soil biomantle is the organic-rich bioturbated upper part of the soil, including the topsoil where most biota live, reproduce, die, and become assimilated. The biomantle is thus the upper zone of soil that is predominantly a product of organic activity and the area where bioturbation is a dominant process. Soil
Soil
bioturbation consists predominantly of three subsets: faunalturbation (animal burrowings), floralturbation (root growth, tree-uprootings), and fungiturbation (mycelia growth). All three processes promote soil parent material destratification, mixing, and often particle size sorting, leading with other processes to the formation of soil and its horizons. While the general term bioturbation refers mainly to these three mixing processes, unless otherwise specified it is commonly used as a synonym to faunalturbation (animal burrowings)
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Hoarding (animal Behavior)
HOARDING or CACHING in animal behavior is the storage of food in locations hidden from the sight of both conspecifics (animals of the same or closely related species) and members of other species. Most commonly, the function of hoarding or caching is to store food in times of surplus for times when food is less plentiful. However, there is evidence that some amount of caching or hoarding is done in order to ripen the food, called ripening caching. The term hoarding is most typically used for rodents , whereas caching is more commonly used in reference to birds , but the behaviors in both animal groups are quite similar. Hoarding is done either on a long-term basis – cached on a seasonal cycle, with food to be consumed months down the line – or on a short term basis, in which case the food will be consumed over a period of one or several days
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Pest (organism)
A PEST is "a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns (as agriculture or livestock production)"; alternative meanings include organisms that cause nuisance and epidemic disease associated with high mortality (specifically: plague ). In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity
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Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte
CHARLES LUCIEN JULES LAURENT BONAPARTE, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano (24 May 1803 – 29 July 1857), was a French biologist and ornithologist . Lucien and his wife had twelve children, including Cardinal Lucien Bonaparte
Lucien Bonaparte
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Honours * 3 Family * 4 Works * 5 Ancestry * 6 References * 6.1 Footnotes * 6.2 Bibliography * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYBonaparte was the son of Lucien Bonaparte
Lucien Bonaparte
and Alexandrine de Bleschamp , and a nephew of Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
I . Born in Paris
Paris
, he was raised in Italy
Italy
. On 29 June 1822, he married his cousin, Zénaïde , in Brussels
Brussels
. Soon after the marriage, the couple left for Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in the United States to live with Zénaïde's father, Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte

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Parasitism
In biology /ecology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite (in biological usage) referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, or macroparasites (such as helminths ). Parasites can be microparasites , which are typically smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions
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Weaning
WEANING is the process of gradually introducing a mammal infant to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk. The process takes place only in mammals, as only mammals produce milk. The infant is considered to be fully weaned once it is no longer fed any breast milk (or bottled substitute). CONTENTS* 1 In human infants * 1.1 Weaning
Weaning
conflict * 1.2 Age * 2 In other mammals * 2.1 In cattle * 2.2 In horses * 2.3 In dogs * 2.4 In rats * 3 See also * 4 References IN HUMAN INFANTS The examples and perspective in this article DEAL PRIMARILY WITH THE UNITED STATES AND DO NOT REPRESENT A WORLDWIDE VIEW OF THE SUBJECT. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )How and when to wean a human infant is controversial
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Burrow
A BURROW is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion . Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements and can be found in nearly every biome and among various biological interactions . Burrows can be constructed into a wide variety of substrates, and can range in complexity from a simple tube a few centimetres long to a complex network of interconnecting tunnels and chambers hundreds or thousands of metres in total length, such as a well-developed rabbit warren
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Endemism
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was perhaps first used by Frank and McCoy
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Muskogean Languages
MUSKOGEAN (also MUSKHOGEAN, MUSKOGEE) is an indigenous language family of the Southeastern United States . Though there is an ongoing debate concerning their interrelationships, the Muskogean languages are generally divided into two branches, Eastern Muskogean and Western Muskogean. They are agglutinative languages
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of minerals , organic matter , gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil
Soil
is a natural body called the pedosphere which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
has been called the Skin of the Earth
Earth
as it interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone. Soil
Soil
consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution)
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Cheek
CHEEKS ( Latin
Latin
: buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear . "BUCCAL" means relating to the cheek. In humans, the region is innervated by the buccal nerve . The area between the inside of the cheek and the teeth and gums is called the vestibule or BUCCAL POUCH or BUCCAL CAVITY and forms part of the mouth . In other animals the cheeks may also be referred to as JOWLS . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Other animals * 2 Buttocks
Buttocks
* 3 Society and culture * 4 See also * 5 References STRUCTURECheeks are fleshy in humans, the skin being suspended by the chin and the jaws , and forming the lateral wall of the human mouth, visibly touching the cheekbone below the eye. The inside of the cheek is lined with a mucous membrane (buccal mucosa, part of the oral mucosa )
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Waffle
A WAFFLE is a dish made from leavened batter or dough that is cooked between two plates that are patterned to give a characteristic size, shape and surface impression. There are many variations based on the type of waffle iron and recipe used. Waffles are eaten throughout the world, particularly in Belgium
Belgium
, which has over a dozen regional varieties. Waffles may be made fresh or simply heated after having been commercially precooked and frozen. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Medieval origins * 2.2 14th–16th centuries * 2.3 17th–18th centuries * 2.4 19th–21st centuries * 3 Varieties * 4 Toppings * 5 Shelf stability and staling * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "waffle" first appears in the English language in 1725: "Waffles. Take flower, cream..." It is directly derived from the Dutch wafel, which itself derives from the Middle Dutch wafele
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Ground Squirrel
Ammospermophilus Spermophilus Cynomys Marmota Tamias Urocitellus Sciurotamias and see text The GROUND SQUIRRELS are members of the squirrel family of rodents ( Sciuridae ) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. The term is most often used for the medium-sized ground squirrels, as the larger ones are more commonly known as marmots (genus Marmota) or prairie dogs , while the smaller and less bushy-tailed ground squirrels tend to be known as chipmunks . Together, they make up the "marmot tribe " of squirrels, MARMOTINI, and the large and mainly ground squirrel subfamily Xerinae , and containing six living genera. Well-known members of this largely Holarctic
Holarctic
group are the marmots (Marmota), including the American groundhog , the chipmunks , the susliks (Spermophilus), and the prairie dogs (Cynomys)
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In b