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Geomyidae
Cratogeomys Geomys Orthogeomys Pappogeomys Thomomys ZygogeomysPocket gophers, commonly referred to as gophers, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae.[2] There are about 35 species, all endemic to North and Central America.[3] They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family. These are the "true" gophers, but several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
are often called gophers, as well. The origin of the word "gopher" is uncertain
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Seasonal Breeder
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year. These times of year allow for the optimization of survival of young due to factors such as ambient temperature, food and water availability, and changes in the predation behaviors of other species.[1] Related sexual interest and behaviors are expressed and accepted only during this period. Female seasonal breeders will have one or more estrus cycles only when she is "in season" or fertile and receptive to mating
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Hoarding (animal Behavior)
Hoarding or caching in animal behavior is the storage of food in locations hidden from the sight of both conspecifics (animals of the same or closely related species) and members of other species.[1] Most commonly, the function of hoarding or caching is to store food in times of surplus for times when food is less plentiful. However, there is evidence that some amount of caching or hoarding is done in order to ripen the food, called ripening caching
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Burrow
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements and can be found in nearly every biome and among various biological interactions
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Hawk
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Hawks are widely distributed and vary greatly in size.The subfamily Accipitrinae
Accipitrinae
includes goshawks, sparrowhawks, sharp-shinned hawks and others. This subfamily are mainly woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity. They hunt by dashing suddenly from a concealed perch.[1] In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are also called hawks; this group are called buzzards in other parts of the world. Generally, buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds. They are relatively larger-winged, shorter-tailed and fly further distances in open areas than accipiters. Buteos descend or pounce on their prey rather than hunting in a fast horizontal pursuit.The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used to distinguish between the types in regions where hawk applies to both
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Endemism
Endemism
Endemism
is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists,[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Central America
Central America
Central America
(Spanish: América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Pest (organism)
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.[1][2]Contents1 Concept 2 By taxon2.1 Vertebrate pests2.1.1 Birds 2.1.2 Amphibians 2.1.3 Mammals2.2 Invertebrates2.2.1 Insects and arachnids2.2.1.1 Agricultural and domestic arthropods 2.2.1.2 Tree and forest pests 2.2.1.3 Ectoparasites2.2.2 Nematodes 2.2.3 Gastropod
Gastropod
molluscs2.3 Plant diseases 2.4 Weeds3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksConcept[edit] A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, which is invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures
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Ground Squirrel
Ammospermophilus Spermophilus Cynomys Marmota Tamias Urocitellus Sciurotamias and see textThe ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents (Sciuridae) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. The term is most often used for the medium-sized ground squirrels, as the larger ones are more commonly known as marmots (genus Marmota) or prairie dogs, while the smaller and less bushy-tailed ground squirrels tend to be known as chipmunks. Together, they make up the "marmot tribe" of squirrels, Marmotini, and the large and mainly ground squirrel subfamily Xerinae, and containing six living genera
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Snake
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.[2] Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca
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Waffle
A waffle is a dish made from leavened batter or dough that is cooked between two plates that are patterned to give a characteristic size, shape and surface impression. There are many variations based on the type of waffle iron and recipe used. Waffles are eaten throughout the world, particularly in Belgium, which has over a dozen regional varieties.[1] Waffles may be made fresh or simply heated after having been commercially precooked and frozen.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Medieval origins 2.2 14th–16th centuries 2.3 17th–18th centuries 2.4 19th–21st centuries3 Varieties 4 Toppings 5 Shelf stability and staling 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology The word "waffle" first appears in the English language in 1725: "Waffles
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Honeycomb
A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. Beekeepers may remove the entire honeycomb to harvest honey. Honey bees consume about 8.4 lb (3.8 kg) of honey to secrete 1 lb (454 g) of wax,[1] so it makes economic sense to return the wax to the hive after harvesting the honey. The structure of the comb may be left basically intact when honey is extracted from it by uncapping and spinning in a centrifugal machine—the honey extractor. If the honeycomb is too worn out, the wax can be reused in a number of ways, including making sheets of comb foundation with hexagonal pattern
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