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Geological Time Spiral
GEOLOGY (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse" ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth
Earth
, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology
Geology
can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite , (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon ). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks
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Geotechnical Engineering
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials . Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military , mining , petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering
Geotechnical engineering
uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations ; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties
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Academic Discipline
An ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE or ACADEMIC FIELD is a branch of knowledge . It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with a given scholastic subject area or college department. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics , mathematics , and computer science . Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as experts or specialists. Others, who may have studied liberal arts or systems theory rather than concentrating in a specific academic discipline, are classified as generalists
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Rock Cycle
The ROCK CYCLE is a basic concept in geology that describes the time-consuming transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary , metamorphic , and igneous . As the adjacent diagram illustrates, each of the types of rocks is altered or destroyed when it is forced out of its equilibrium conditions. An igneous rock such as basalt may break down and dissolve when exposed to the atmosphere , or melt as it is subducted under a continent . Due to the driving forces of the rock cycle, plate tectonics and the water cycle , rocks do not remain in equilibrium and are forced to change as they encounter new environments. The rock cycle is an illustration that explains how the three rock types are related to each other, and how processes change from one type to another over time. This cyclical aspect makes rock change a geologic cycle and, on planets containing life , a biogeochemical cycle
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Igneous
IGNEOUS ROCK (derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or MAGMATIC ROCK, is one of the three main rock types , the others being sedimentary and metamorphic . Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava . The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet 's mantle or crust . Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature , a decrease in pressure , or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses
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Sedimentary
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth\'s surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus ) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment . Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water , wind , ice , mass movement or glaciers , which are called agents of denudation . Sedimentation may also occur as minerals precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension. The sedimentary rock cover of the continents of the Earth\'s crust is extensive (73% of the Earth's current land surface ), but the total contribution of sedimentary rocks is estimated to be only 8% of the total volume of the crust
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Climate Change
Atmospheric physics
Atmospheric physics
Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone (category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e CLIMATE CHANGE is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate
Climate
change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events)
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Environmental Geology
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, like hydrogeology , is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. It is a multidisciplinary field that is closely related to engineering geology and, to a lesser extent, to environmental geography . Each of these fields involves the study of the interaction of humans with the geologic environment, including the biosphere , the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , and to some extent the atmosphere . In other words, environmental geology is the application of geological information to solve conflicts, minimizing possible adverse environmental degradation or maximizing possible advantageous condition resulting from the use of natural and modified environment
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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Petroleum Geology
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels. It refers to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration ). CONTENTS * 1 Sedimentary basin
Sedimentary basin
analysis * 2 Major subdisciplines in petroleum geology * 2.1 Source rock analysis * 2.2 Basin analysis * 2.3 Exploration stage * 2.4 Appraisal stage * 2.5 Production stage * 2.6 Reservoir analysis * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links SEDIMENTARY BASIN ANALYSIS Petroleum
Petroleum
geology is principally concerned with the evaluation of seven key elements in sedimentary basins : A structural trap, where a fault has juxtaposed a porous and permeable reservoir against an impermeable seal. Oil (shown in red) accumulates against the seal, to the depth of the base of the seal
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Water Resources
WATER RESOURCES are sources of water that are potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural , industrial , household , recreational and environmental activities. All living things require water to grow and reproduce. 97% of the water on the Earth
Earth
is salt water and only three percent is fresh water ; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps . The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. Fresh water is a renewable resource , yet the world's supply of groundwater is steadily decreasing, with depletion occurring most prominently in Asia, South America
South America
and North America, although it is still unclear how much natural renewal balances this usage, and whether ecosystems are threatened
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Natural Hazard
A NATURAL HAZARD is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on people or the environment. Natural hazard
Natural hazard
events can be grouped into two broad categories, which are Geophysical hazards encompass geological and meteorological phenomena such as earthquakes , volcanic eruption , wildfire , cyclonic storms , flood , drought , and coastal erosion . Biological hazards can refer to a diverse array of disease and infestation. Many geophysical hazards are related; for example, submarine earthquakes can cause tsunamis , and hurricanes can lead to coastal flooding and erosion . Floods and wildfires can result from a combination of geological, hydrological, and climatic factors. It is possible that some natural hazards are intertemporally correlated as well
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Metamorphic
METAMORPHIC ROCKS arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism , which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith ) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (150 megapascals (1,500 bar)), causing profound physical or chemical change. The protolith may be a sedimentary , igneous , or existing metamorphic rock. Metamorphic
Metamorphic
rocks make up a large part of the Earth\'s crust and form 12% of the Earth's land surface. They are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage (metamorphic facies ). They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure, friction and distortion
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Crystallization
CRYSTALLIZATION is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal . Some of the ways by which crystals form are through precipitating from a solution , melting , or more rarely deposition directly from a gas . Attributes of the resulting crystal depend largely on factors such as temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation. Crystallization
Crystallization
occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation , the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a supercooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth , which is the increase in the size of particles and leads to a crystal state. An important feature of this step is that loose particles form layers at the crystal's surface lodge themselves into open inconsistencies such as pores, cracks, etc
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Mineral
A MINERAL is a naturally occurring chemical compound , usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition , whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids . The study of minerals is called mineralogy . There are over 5,300 known mineral species; as of March 2017 , over 5,230 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth\'s crust . The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon
Silicon
and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties . Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed
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Metamorphic Rock
METAMORPHIC ROCKS arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism , which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith ) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (150 megapascals (1,500 bar)), causing profound physical and/or chemical change. The protolith may be a sedimentary , an igneous , or even an existing type of metamorphic rock. Metamorphic
Metamorphic
rocks make up a large part of the Earth\'s crust and form 12% of the Earth's current land surface. They are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage (metamorphic facies ). They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental coll