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Geological Time Spiral
GEOLOGY (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse" ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth
Earth
, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology
Geology
can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars
Mars
). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth
Earth
as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth
Earth
. Geology
Geology
provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics , the evolutionary history of life , and the Earth's past climates . Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work , rock description , geophysical techniques , chemical analysis , physical experiments , and numerical modelling
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Geology (journal)
GEOLOGY is a publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA). The GSA claims that it is the most widely read scientific journal in the field of earth science . It is published monthly, with each issue containing 20 or more articles , and an annual total of 1166 pages. One of the goals of the journal is to provide a forum for shorter articles and less focus on pure academic research type articles. SEE ALSO * List of scientific journals * List of scientific journals in earth and atmospheric sciences REFERENCES * ^ "Geology". Geological Society of America. 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-27
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Geological Map
A GEOLOGIC MAP or GEOLOGICAL MAP is a special-purpose map made to show geological features. Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. Bedding planes and structural features such as faults , folds , foliations , and lineations are shown with strike and dip or trend and plunge symbols which give these features' three-dimensional orientations. Stratigraphic contour lines may be used to illustrate the surface of a selected stratum illustrating the subsurface topographic trends of the strata. Isopach maps detail the variations in thickness of stratigraphic units. It is not always possible to properly show this when the strata are extremely fractured, mixed, in some discontinuities, or where they are otherwise disturbed. William Smith\'s geologic map CONTENTS* 1 Symbols * 1.1 Lithologies * 1.2 Orientations * 2 History * 3 Maps and mapping around the globe * 3.1 United States * 3.2 United Kingdom * 3.3 Singapore * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SYMBOLSLITHOLOGIESRock units are typically represented by colors. Instead of (or in addition to) colors, certain symbols can be used. Different geologic mapping agencies and authorities have different standards for the colors and symbols to be used for rocks of differing types and ages
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André Dumont
ANDRé HUBERT DUMONT (15 February 1809 – 28 February 1857) was a Belgian geologist . Dumont was born in Liège . His first work was a masterly Mémoire on the geology of the province of Liège published in 1832. A few years later he became a professor of mineralogy and geology and afterwards Rector of the University of Liège
University of Liège
. He subsequently turned his attention to the mineralogical and stratigraphical description of the geological formations in Belgium. The names given by him to many subdivisions of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
and Tertiary
Tertiary
have been adopted. His Mémoire sur les terrains ardennais et rhénan de l'Ardenne, du Brabant et du Condroz (1847–1848) is notable for the care with which the mineralogy of the strata was described, but the palaeontological characterization was insufficient, and neither did he adopt the terms Silurian
Silurian
or Devonian
Devonian
. 1875 Dumont's geological map of Europe During twenty years he laboured on a geological map of Belgium (1849). He spared no pains to make his work as complete as possible, examining—on foot—almost every area of importance in the country. Journeying to the more southern parts of Europe, he investigated the shores of the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
, the mountains of Spain and other regions, thereby collecting material for his geological map of Europe
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Lithology
The LITHOLOGY of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop , in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition. It may be either a detailed description of these characteristics or be a summary of the gross physical character of a rock. It is the basis of subdividing rock sequences into individual lithostratigraphic units for the purposes of mapping and correlation between areas. In certain applications, such as site investigations , lithology is described using a standard terminology such as in the European geotechnical standard Eurocode 7 . CONTENTS * 1 Rock type * 2 Grain/clast size * 3 Mineralogy * 4 Colour * 5 Fabric * 6 Texture * 7 Small-scale structures * 8 Surficial lithology * 9 References ROCK TYPE A basalt , showing the 'pillow ' lava shape characteristic of underwater eruptions, Italy The naming of a lithology is based on the rock type . The three major rock types are sedimentary , igneous , metamorphic . Sedimentary rocks are further classified by whether they are siliciclastic or carbonate
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Earth Science
EARTH SCIENCE or GEOSCIENCE is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the planet Earth . It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science , but with a much older history. “ Earth science” is a broad term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth's environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events. The Earth sciences can include the study of geology , the lithosphere , and the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere , hydrosphere , and biosphere
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Solid Earth
SOLID EARTH refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or _terra firma_, the planet's solid surface and its interior. :v :1 It contrasts with the Earth's fluid envelopes, the atmosphere and hydrosphere (but includes the ocean basin ), as well as the biosphere and interactions with the sun . It includes the liquid core . SOLID-EARTH SCIENCE refers to the corresponding methods of study, a subset of Earth sciences , predominantly geophysics and geology , excluding aeronomy , atmospheric sciences , oceanography , hydrology , and ecology . SEE ALSO * Geosphere * Lithosphere * Pedosphere * Structure of the Earth REFERENCES * ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Solid Earth Problems (1964). _Solid-earth Geophysics: Survey and Outlook_. National Academies. * ^ Council, National Research (1993). _Solid-earth sciences and society_. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 9780309047395 . FURTHER READING * Fowler, C.M.R. (2006). _The solid earth : an introduction to global geophysics_ (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521893077 . Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solid_earth additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Rock (geology)
ROCK or STONE is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, granite , a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz , feldspar and biotite . The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere , is made of rock. Rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic . The scientific study of rocks is called petrology , which is an essential component of geology. CONTENTS* 1 Classification * 1.1 Igneous
Igneous
rock * 1.2 Sedimentary rock * 1.3 Metamorphic rock * 2 Human use * 2.1 Mining
Mining
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CLASSIFICATION See also: Formation of rocks Rock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí
Orosí
, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which, in turn, are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound that is arranged in an orderly manner. The aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds . The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed
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Terrestrial Planet
A TERRESTRIAL PLANET, TELLURIC PLANET, or ROCKY PLANET is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals . Within the Solar System , the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun , i.e. Mercury , Venus , Earth , and Mars . The terms "terrestrial planet" and "telluric planet" are derived from Latin words for Earth (_Terra_ and _Tellus_), as these planets are, in terms of composition, "Earth-like". Terrestrial planets have a solid planetary surface , making them substantially different from the larger giant planets , which are composed mostly of some combination of hydrogen , helium , and water existing in various physical states . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Solar System\'s terrestrial planets * 2.1 Density trends * 3 Extrasolar terrestrial planets * 3.1 List of terrestrial exoplanets * 3.2 Frequency * 4 Types * 5 See also * 6 References STRUCTUREAll terrestrial planets in the Solar System have the same basic type of structure, such as a central metallic core , mostly iron , with a surrounding silicate mantle . The Moon is similar, but has a much smaller iron core
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Geology Of The Moon
The GEOLOGY OF THE MOON (sometimes called SELENOLOGY, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of Earth . The Moon lacks a significant atmosphere , which eliminates erosion due to weather ; it does not have any form of plate tectonics , it has a lower gravity , and because of its small size, it cooled more rapidly. The complex geomorphology of the lunar surface has been formed by a combination of processes, especially impact cratering and volcanism . The Moon is a differentiated body, with a crust , mantle , and core . Geological studies of the Moon are based on a combination of Earth-based telescope observations, measurements from orbiting spacecraft , lunar samples , and geophysical data. Six locations were sampled directly during the manned Apollo program landings from 1969 to 1972, which returned 380.96 kilograms (839.9 lb) of lunar rock and soil to Earth. In addition, three robotic Soviet Luna spacecraft returned another 326 grams (11.5 oz) from 1970 to 1976. The Moon is the only extraterrestrial body for which we have samples with a known geologic context. A handful of lunar meteorites have been recognized on Earth, though their source craters on the Moon are unknown. A substantial portion of the lunar surface has not been explored, and a number of geological questions remain unanswered
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Geology Of Mars
The GEOLOGY OF MARS is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars . It emphasizes the composition, structure, history, and physical processes that shape the planet. It is analogous to the field of terrestrial geology . In planetary science , the term _geology_ is used in its broadest sense to mean the study of the solid parts of planets and moons. The term incorporates aspects of geophysics , geochemistry , mineralogy , geodesy , and cartography . A neologism , AREOLOGY, from the Greek word _Arēs_ (Mars), sometimes appears as a synonym for Mars's geology in the popular media and works of science fiction (e.g. Kim Stanley Robinson’s Mars trilogy ), but the term is rarely, if ever, used by professional geologists and planetary scientists
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Structure Of The Earth
The interior STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH is layered in spherical shells. These layers can be defined by their chemical and their rheological properties. Earth has an outer silicate solid crust , a highly viscous mantle , a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core . Scientific understanding of the internal structure of the Earth is based on observations of topography and bathymetry , observations of rock in outcrop , samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanoes or volcanic activity , analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth, and experiments with crystalline solids at pressures and temperatures characteristic of the Earth's deep interior. CONTENTS * 1 Mass * 2 Structure * 2.1 Crust * 2.2 Mantle * 2.3 Core * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links MASSThe force exerted by Earth\'s gravity can be used to calculate its mass . Astronomers can also calculate Earth\'s mass by observing the motion of orbiting satellites . Earth’s average density can be determined through gravitometric experiments, which have historically involved pendulums . The mass of Earth is about 7024600000000000000♠6×1024 kg. STRUCTURE Earth's radial density distribution according to the preliminary reference earth model (PREM)
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Relative Dating
RELATIVE DATING is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age , (i.e. estimated age). In geology, rock or superficial deposits , fossils and lithologies can be used to correlate one stratigraphic column with another. Prior to the discovery of radiometric dating in the early 20th century, which provided a means of absolute dating , archaeologists and geologists used relative dating to determine ages of materials. Though relative dating can only determine the sequential order in which a series of events occurred, not when they occurred, it remains a useful technique. Relative dating
Relative dating
by biostratigraphy is the preferred method in paleontology and is, in some respects, more accurate. The Law of Superposition
Law of Superposition
, which states that older layers will be deeper in a site than more recent layers, was the summary outcome of 'relative dating' as observed in geology from the 17th century to the early 20th century
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Geochronology
GEOCHRONOLOGY is the science of determining the age of rocks , fossils , and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy , which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy does not _directly_ provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an _interval_ of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted. Both disciplines work together hand in hand however, to the point where they share the same system of naming rock layers and the time spans utilized to classify layers within a stratum. The science of geochronology is the prime tool used in the discipline of chronostratigraphy , which attempts to derive absolute age dates for all fossil assemblages and determine the geologic history of the Earth and extraterrestrial bodies
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History Of The Earth
The HISTORY OF EARTH concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day. Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to the understanding of the main events of Earth's past. The age of the Earth is approximately one-third of the age of the universe . An immense amount of geological change has occurred in that timespan, accompanied by the emergence of life and its subsequent evolution . Earth formed around 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula . Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean; but the atmosphere contained almost no oxygen and so would have been toxic to most modern life including humans. Much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism. A giant impact collision with a planet-sized body named Theia while Earth was in its earliest stage, also known as Early