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Geography
Geography
Geography
(from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description")[1] is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets.[2] The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Temporal Database
A temporal database stores data relating to time instances. It offers temporal data types and stores information relating to past, present and future time. The temporal database has two major notions or attributes. 1. valid time. 2. transaction time. More specifically the temporal aspects usually include valid time and transaction time. These attributes can be combined to form bitemporal data. Valid time is the time period during which a fact is true in the real world. Transaction time is the time period during which a fact stored in the database was known. Bitemporal
Bitemporal
data combines both Valid and Transaction Time.It is possible to have timelines other than Valid Time
Time
and Transaction Time, such as Decision Time, in the database. In that case the database is called a multitemporal database as opposed to a bitemporal database
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Lithosphere
A lithosphere (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid,[1] outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. The study of past and current formations of landscapes is called geomorphology.Contents1 Earth's lithosphere1.1 History of the concept 1.2 Types1.2.1 Oceanic lithosphere 1.2.2 Subducted lithosphere2 Mantle xenoliths 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarth's lithosphere Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates
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Flora
Flora
Flora
is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Sometimes bacteria and fungi are also referred to as flora, as in the terms gut flora or skin flora.[1][2][3]Contents1 Etymology 2 Flora
Flora
classifications 3 Documentation of floras 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "flora" comes from the Latin
Latin
name of Flora, the goddess of plants, flowers, and fertility in Roman mythology.[4][citation needed] The distinction between vegetation (the general appearance of a community) and flora (the taxonomic composition of a community) was first made by Jules Thurmann
Jules Thurmann
(1849)
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Landform
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth
Earth
or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Typical landforms include hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, and valleys, as well as shoreline features such as bays, peninsulas, and seas,[citation needed] including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.Contents1 Physical characteristics 2 Hierarchy of classes 3 Recent developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPhysical characteristics[edit] Landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Gross physical features or landforms include intuitive elements such as berms, mounds, hills, ridges, cliffs, valleys, rivers, peninsulas, volcanoes, and numerous other structural and size-scaled (i.e. ponds vs
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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United States National Research Council
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Medicine
(also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific National Academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: (1) as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations (the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering
(NAE), and the National Academy of Medicine
National Academy of Medicine
(NAM)). And (2) as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS
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Fauna
Fauna
Fauna
is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
fauna" or the " Burgess Shale
Burgess Shale
fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils
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Climatology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Climatology
Climatology
(from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.[1] This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology
Climatology
now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae
Viridiplantae
(Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Health
Health
Health
is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize the energy with maximum efficiency. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) defined human health in a broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."[1][2] This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete", which makes it practically impossible to achieve.[3][4][5] Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction.[6] [7] An alternative approach focuses on avoiding definitions, which demand precise descriptions of the term
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Meteorology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Meteorology
Meteorology
is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data
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Pedosphere
The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. It exists at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.[1] The pedosphere is the skin of the Earth
Earth
and only develops when there is a dynamic interaction between the atmosphere (air in and above the soil), biosphere (living organisms), lithosphere (unconsolidated regolith and consolidated bedrock) and the hydrosphere (water in, on and below the soil). The pedosphere is the foundation of terrestrial life on this planet
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Interaction
Interaction
Interaction
is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another
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