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Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
(/ˈtʃɔːsər/; c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature,[1] is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. He was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner
Poets' Corner
of Westminster Abbey. While he achieved fame during his lifetime as an author, philosopher, and astronomer, composing a scientific treatise on the astrolabe for his ten-year-old son Lewis, Chaucer also maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat. Among his many works are The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women and Troilus
Troilus
and Criseyde
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William Langland
William Langland (/ˈlæŋlənd/; Latin: Willielmus de Langland; c. 1332 – c. 1386) is the presumed author of a work of Middle English alliterative verse generally known as Piers Plowman, an allegory with a complex variety of religious themes. The poem translated the language and concepts of the cloister into symbols and images that could be understood by a layman.Contents1 Life 2 Attribution 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksLife[edit] Very little is known of Langland himself. It seems that he was born in the West Midlands of England
England
in 1330. The narrator in Piers Plowman receives his first vision while sleeping in the Malvern Hills
Malvern Hills
(between Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Worcestershire), which suggests some connection to the area
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Noble Court
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure. Hence the word court may also be applied to the coterie of a senior member of the nobility. Royal courts may have their seat in a designated place, several specific places, or be a mobile, itinerant court. In the largest courts, the royal households, many thousands of individuals comprised the court. These courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue, household, nobility, those with court appointments, bodyguard, and may also include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may also seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern
Near Eastern
and Eastern courts often included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was walled off and separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch
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Vintner
A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking. They are generally employed by wineries or wine companies, where their work includes:Cooperating with viticulturists Monitoring the maturity of grapes to ensure their quality and to determine the correct time for harvest Crushing and pressing grapes Monitoring the settling of juice and the fermentation of grape material Filtering the wine to remove remaining solids Testing the quality of wine by tasting Placing filtered wine in casks or tanks for storage and maturation Preparing plans for bottling wine once it has matured Making sure that quality is maintained when the wine is bottled[1]Today, these duties require an increasing amount of scientific knowledge, since laboratory tests are gradually supplementing or replacing traditional methods
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Elizabeth De Burgh, 4th Countess Of Ulster
Elizabeth de Burgh, Duchess of Clarence, suo jure 4th Countess of Ulster and 5th Baroness of Connaught (6 July 1332 – 10 December 1363) was a Norman-Irish noblewoman who married Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.Contents1 Family 2 Marriage 3 Ancestry 4 ReferencesFamily[edit] Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
Castle, Elizabeth's birthplaceElizabeth was born at Carrickfergus Castle
Carrickfergus Castle
near Belfast, Ireland, the only child of William Donn de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster
Earl of Ulster
and Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster
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Vernacular
A vernacular or vernacular language is the native language or native dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (also called a vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect" as synonyms.[1]The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c
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Earl Of Ulster
The title of Earl of Ulster
Ulster
has been created six times in the Peerage of Ireland and twice Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since 1928, the title has been held by the Duke of Gloucester
Duke of Gloucester
and is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's eldest son, currently Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster
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Hundred Years' War
House of Valois Kingdom of France Duchy of Burgundy[1] Duchy of Brittany[2] (County of Flanders)*[3] Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Lorraine Republic of Genoa Crown of Castile Crown of Aragon Kingdom of Majorca Avignon Papacy[4] House of Plantagenet Kingdom of England Principality of Wales Duchy of Aquitaine English Kingdom of France[5] Duchy of Burgundy County of Flanders County of Hainaut Duchy of Brittany[6] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Navarre Papal States[7]Commanders and leaders Philip VI (1337–1350) John II (1350–1364) Charles V (1364–1380) Charles VI (1380–1422) Charles VII (1422–1453) Edward III
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History Of The British Army
The history of the British Army
British Army
spans over three and a half centuries since its founding in 1660 and involves numerous European wars, colonial wars and world wars. From the late 17th century until the mid-20th century, the United Kingdom was the greatest economic and imperial power in the world, and although this dominance was principally achieved through the strength of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(RN), the British Army
British Army
played a significant role. As of 2015[update], there were 92,000 professionals in the regular army (including 2,700 Gurkhas) and 20,480 Volunteer Reserves.[1] Britain has generally maintained only a small regular army during peacetime, expanding this as required in time of war, due to Britain's traditional role as a sea power
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Rheims
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Reims
Reims
(/riːmz/; also spelled Rheims; French: [ʁɛ̃s]), a city in the Grand Est
Grand Est
region of France, lies 129 km (80 mi) east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants (Rémoises (feminine) and Rémois (masculine)) in the city of Reims proper (the commune), and 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (aire urbaine). Its river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire.[1] Reims
Reims
played a prominent ceremonial role in French monarchical history as the traditional site of the crowning of the kings of France
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Flanders
Flanders
Flanders
(Dutch: Vlaanderen [ˈvlaːndərə(n)] ( listen), French: Flandre [flɑ̃dʁ], German: Flandern, [flɑndɛɹn]) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history. It is one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. The demonym associated with Flanders
Flanders
is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish
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Santiago De Compostela
Santiago de Compostela,[a], is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia in northwestern Spain. The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the city's cathedral, as destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route originated in the 9th century[1]. In 1985 the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Contents1 Toponym 2 The city2.1 Climate3 Administration3.1 2015 city council elections results4 Population 5 History 6 Economy 7 Way of St. James7.1 Legends 7.2 Establishment of the shrine 7.3 Pre-Christian legends 7.4 In popular culture8 Main sights 9 Transport 10 Notable people10.1 sport11 International relations11.1 Twin towns/Sister cities12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External linksToponym[edit] Santiago is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
Sanctus Iacobus "Saint James"
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Philippa Of Hainault
Philippa of Hainault
Philippa of Hainault
(Middle French: Philippe de Hainaut; 24 June[1] c.1310/15[2] – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.[3] Edward promised in 1326 to marry her within the following two years.[4] She was married to Edward, first by proxy, when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry
Bishop of Coventry
"to marry her in his name" in Valenciennes
Valenciennes
(second city in importance of the county of Hainaut) in October 1327.[5] The marriage was celebrated formally in York Minster
York Minster
on 24 January 1328, some months after Edward's accession to the throne of England. In August 1328, he also fixed his wife's dower.[6] Philippa acted as regent in 1346,[7] when her husband was away from his kingdom, and she often accompanied him on his expeditions to Scotland, France, and Flanders
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Moneyer
A moneyer is a private individual who is officially permitted to mint money. Usually the rights to coin money are bestowed as a concession by a state or government. Moneyers have a long tradition, dating back at least to ancient Greece. They became most prominent in the Roman Republic, and continued into the Empire. Moneyers were not limited to the ancient world
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Astronomer
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They look at stars, planets, moons, comets and galaxies, as well as many other celestial objects — either in observational astronomy, in analyzing the data, or in theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers work on include: planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. There are also related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology which studies the Universe
Universe
as a whole. Astronomers usually fit into two types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers make direct observations of planets, stars and galaxies, and analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed
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Chief Butler Of England
The Chief Butler of England is an office of Grand Sergeanty associated with the feudal Manor of Kenninghall
Kenninghall
in Norfolk. The office requires service to be provided to the Monarch at the Coronation, in this case the service of Pincera Regis, or Chief Butler at the Coronation banquet. The manor of Kenninghall
Kenninghall
was given by Henry I to William de Albini, and was later inherited by the Dukes of Norfolk. It was sold in 1872 to John Oddin Taylor of Norwich. The last occasion on which a coronation banquet was considered was in 1902 for Edward VII, but plans were abandoned as a result of his illness
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