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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Ecology
ECOLOGY (from Greek : οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology , geography , and Earth science . Ecology
Ecology
includes the study of interactions that organisms have with each other, other organisms, and with abiotic components of their environment . Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity , distribution, amount (biomass ), and number (population ) of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms , the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment
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Genera (operating System)
GENERA is a commercial operating system and development environment for Lisp machines developed by Symbolics . It is essentially a fork of an earlier operating system originating on the MIT
MIT
AI Lab 's Lisp machines which Symbolics had used in common with LMI and Texas Instruments . Genera is also sold by Symbolics as OPEN GENERA, which runs Genera on computers based on an Alpha processor using Tru64 UNIX . It is available as proprietary software . Genera is an example of a Lisp , object-oriented operating system . Genera supports incremental and interactive development of complex software using a mix of programming styles with extensive support for object-oriented programming
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Monophyly
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Organisms
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
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Biogeography
BIOGEOGRAPHY is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time . Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude , elevation , isolation and habitat area . Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants. Zoogeography is the branch that studies distribution of animals. Knowledge of spatial variation in the numbers and types of organisms is as vital to us today as it was to our early human ancestors , as we adapt to heterogeneous but geographically predictable environments . Biogeography
Biogeography
is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecology , evolutionary biology , geology , and physical geography
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Gene Flow
In population genetics , GENE FLOW (also known as GENE MIGRATION) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent genetic diversity and therefore effectively a single population. It has been shown that it takes only "One migrant per generation" to prevent population diverging due to drift . Gene
Gene
flow is an important mechanism for transferring genetic diversity among populations. Migrants into or out of a population may result in a change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene), changing the distribution of genetic diversity within the populations. Immigration may also result in the addition of new genetic variants to the established gene pool of a particular species or population. High rates of gene flow can reduce the genetic differentiation between the two groups, increasing homogeneity
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DNA Sequences
A NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
(using GACT) or RNA
RNA
(GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5\' end to the 3\' end . For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers , specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure . The sequence has capacity to represent information . Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure . Primary structure is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence. Conversely, there is no parallel concept of secondary or tertiary sequence
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Scientific
SCIENCE (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world
Western world
the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Nomenclature Codes
NOMENCLATURE CODES or CODES OF NOMENCLATURE are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature , each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families , it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. The successful introduction of two-part names for species by Linnaeus was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names there arose several schools of thought about the details. It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names . From the mid-nineteenth century onwards there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules
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Subspecies Of Canis Lupus
Numerous and disputed Historical range of wild subspecies of C. lupus Canis
Canis
lupus has 38 subspecies currently described, including the dingo, Canis
Canis
lupus dingo , and the domestic dog, Canis
Canis
lupus familiaris , and many subspecies of wolf throughout the Northern Hemisphere . The nominate subspecies is Canis
Canis
lupus lupus . Canis
Canis
lupus is assessed as least concern by the IUCN , as its relatively widespread range and stable population trend mean that the species, at global level, does not meet, or nearly meet, any of the criteria for the threatened categories. However, some local populations are classified as endangered, and some subspecies are endangered or extinct. Biological taxonomy is not fixed, and placement of taxa is reviewed as a result of new research
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Eurasian Wolf
The EURASIAN WOLF ( Canis
Canis
lupus lupus), also known as the COMMON WOLF or MIDDLE RUSSIAN FOREST WOLF, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to Europe and the forest and steppe zones of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. It was once widespread throughout Eurasia prior to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Aside from an extensive paleontological and genetic record, Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
typically have several words for wolf, thus attesting to the animal's abundance and cultural significance. It was held in high regard in Baltic , Celtic , Slavic , Turkic , ancient Greek , Roman , and Thracian cultures, whilst having an ambivalent reputation in early Germanic cultures
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Postzygotic Barrier
The MECHANISMS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation . They prevent members of different species from producing offspring , or ensure that any offspring are sterile. These barriers maintain the integrity of a species by reducing gene flow between related species. The mechanisms of reproductive isolation have been classified in a number of ways. Zoologist Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
classified the mechanisms of reproductive isolation in two broad categories: pre-zygotic for those that act before fertilization (or before mating in the case of animals ) and post-zygotic for those that act after it. The mechanisms are genetically controlled and can appear in species whose geographic distributions overlap (sympatric speciation ) or are separate (allopatric speciation )
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