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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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Genera (operating System)
GENERA is a commercial operating system and development environment for Lisp machines developed by Symbolics . It is essentially a fork of an earlier operating system originating on the MIT
MIT
AI Lab 's Lisp machines which Symbolics had used in common with LMI and Texas Instruments . Genera is also sold by Symbolics as OPEN GENERA, which runs Genera on computers based on an Alpha processor using Tru64 UNIX . It is available as proprietary software . Genera is an example of a Lisp , object-oriented operating system . Genera supports incremental and interactive development of complex software using a mix of programming styles with extensive support for object-oriented programming
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Life
Life on Earth: * Non-cellular life * Viruses * Viroids * Cellular life * Domain Bacteria * Domain Archaea * Domain Eukarya * Archaeplastida * SAR * Excavata * Amoebozoa * Opisthokonta This article is one of a series on: LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE ASTROBIOLOGY LIFE IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM Life on Venus Life on Earth Life on Mars Life on Europa Life on Titan LIFE OUTSIDE THE SOLAR SYSTEM SETI Exoplanetology Planetary habitability Circumstellar habitable zone * v * t * e LIFE is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes , such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased , or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants , animals , fungi , protists , archaea , and bacteria . The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses , viroids , or potential artificial life as "living". Biology is the primary science concerned with the study of life, although many other sciences are involved. The definition of life is controversial
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota (represented by the Australian green tree frog , left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by _ Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
_, middle) and Archaea (represented by _ Sulfolobus _, right). The hierarchy of biological classification 's eight major taxonomic ranks . Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biological taxonomy , a DOMAIN ( Latin
Latin
: REGIO ) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese , an American microbiologist and biophysicist . According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria
Bacteria
, and Eukarya . The first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms , or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus . All life that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, and multicellular organisms , is included in the Eukarya. Stefan Luketa in 2012 proposed the five-domain system of life with both cellular and non-cellular organisms
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Kingdom (biology)
In biology , KINGDOM ( Latin
Latin
: _REGNUM_, plural _REGNA_) is the second highest taxonomic rank , just below domain . Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla . Traditionally, textbooks from the United States used a system of six kingdoms ( Animalia , Plantae , Fungi
Fungi
, Protista , Archaea / Archaeabacteria , and Bacteria
Bacteria
/ Eubacteria ) while textbooks in Great Britain, India, Australia, Latin
Latin
America and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera ). Some recent classifications based on modern cladistics have explicitly abandoned the term "kingdom", noting that the traditional kingdoms are not monophyletic , i.e., do not consist of all the descendants of a common ancestor
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Phylum
In biology, a PHYLUM (/ˈfaɪləm/ ; plural : PHYLA) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class . Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent. Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 35 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae contains about 12, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 7 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades , like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta
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Class (biology)
In biological classification , CLASS (Latin : classis) is: * a taxonomic rank . Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , order , family , genus , and species , with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes) Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia
Mammalia
. The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist . Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed. Since the first publication of the APG system in 1998, which proposed a taxonomy of the flowering plants up to the level of orders, many sources have preferred to treat ranks higher than orders as informal clades . Where formal ranks have been assigned, the ranks have been reduced to a very much lower level, e.g. class Equisitopsida for the land plants, with the major divisions within the class assigned to subclasses and superorders
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order. Some taxa are accepted almost universally, while others are recognised only rarely. For some groups of organisms, consistent suffixes are used to denote that the rank is an order. The Latin suffix -(i)formes meaning "having the form of" is used for the scientific name of orders of birds and fishes , but not for those of mammals and invertebrates . The suffix -ales is for the name of orders of plants, fungi, and algae
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : _familia_, plural _familiae_) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time. Some described taxa are accepted broadly and quickly, but others only rarely, if at all; the publishing of new data and opinion often enables adjustments and consensus over time. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 History * 3 Uses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography NOMENCLATUREThe naming of families is codified by various international codes. * In fungal, algal, and botanical nomenclature , the family names of plants, fungi, and algae end with the suffix "-aceae", with the exception of a small number of historic but widely used names including Compositae and Gramineae
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature ). For example, _ Boa constrictor _ is one of four species of the _Boa _ genus. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being . In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification , TAXONOMIC RANK is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon ) in a taxonomic hierarchy . Examples of taxonomic ranks are species , genus , family , order , class , phylum , kingdom , domain , etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two. Consider a particular species, the red fox , Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: its next rank, the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
, comprises all the 'true foxes'. Their closest relatives are in the immediately higher rank, the family Canidae , which includes dogs, wolves, jackals, all foxes, and other caniforms such as bears, badgers and seals; the next higher rank, the order Carnivora , includes feliforms and caniforms (lions, tigers, hyenas, wolverines, and all those mentioned above), plus other carnivorous mammals
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Extant Taxon
NEONTOLOGY is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology , deals with living or recently extinct organisms . It is the study of living species , genera , families and other taxa with members still alive, as opposed to being all dead or extinct . For example, the moose is an extant species, while the Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
is a long extinct one. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods , as of 1987 , there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species. A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as existing if there are new discoveries of living species ("Lazarus species" ), or if previously-known existing species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists. Stephen Jay Gould said of neontology: All professions maintain their parochialisms , and I trust that nonpaleontological readers will forgive our major manifestation. We are paleontologists, so we need a name to contrast ourselves with all you folks who study modern organisms in human or ecological time . You therefore become neontologists. We do recognize the unbalanced and parochial nature of this dichotomous division. REFERENCES * ^ Barnes, Robert D. (1987)
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