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Geneva Protocol
The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva
Geneva
Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It was signed at Geneva
Geneva
on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928. It was registered in League of Nations
League of Nations
Treaty Series on 7 September 1929.[4] The Geneva
Geneva
Protocol is a protocol to the Convention for the Supervision of the International Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in Implements of War signed on the same date, and followed the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. It prohibits the use of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods of warfare"
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Sarin
Sarin, or NATO
NATO
designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.[5] A colorless, odorless liquid, it is used as a chemical weapon due to its extreme potency as a nerve agent. Exposure is lethal even at very low concentrations, where death can occur within one to ten minutes after direct inhalation of a lethal dose,[6][7] due to suffocation from lung muscle paralysis, unless antidotes are quickly administered.[5] People who absorb a non-lethal dose, but do not receive immediate medical treatment, may suffer permanent neurological damage. It is generally considered a weapon of mass destruction. Production and stockpiling of sarin was outlawed as of April 1997 by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, and it is classified as a Schedule 1 substance
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Kingdom Of Hungary (1920–1946)
The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de factonote 1 country under Regent
Regent
Miklós Horthy. Horthy officially represented the Hungarian monarchy of Charles IV, Apostolic King of Hungary. Attempts by Charles IV to return to the throne were prevented by threats of war from neighbouring countries and by the lack of support from Horthy. The country has been regarded by some historians to have been a client state of Germany
Germany
from 1938 to 1944.[6] The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
under Horthy was an Axis Power during most of World War II. In 1944, after Horthy's government negotiated secretly with the Allies, and considered to leave the war as well, Hungary
Hungary
was occupied by Nazi Germany
Germany
and Horthy was deposed
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound[11] with the chemical formula HCN. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that boils slightly above room temperature, at 25.6 °C (78.1 °F).[12] HCN is produced on an industrial scale and is a highly valuable precursor to many chemical compounds ranging from polymers to pharmaceuticals.Contents1 Structure and general properties 2 History of discovery 3 Production and synthesis3.1 Historical methods of production4 Applications 5 Occurrence5.1 HCN on Titan 5.2 HCN on the young Earth 5.3 HCN in mammals 5.4 HCN and the origin of life 5.5 HCN in space6 As a poison and chemical weapon 7 References 8 Cited sources 9 External linksStructure and general properties[edit] Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen
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Combatants
Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict. The legal definition of "combatant" is found at article 43 of Additional Protocol One to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 [AP1]. It states that "Members of the armed forces of a Party to a conflict (other than medical personnel and chaplains covered by Article 33 of the Third Convention) are combatants, that is to say, they have the right to participate directly in hostilities." [1] In addition to having the right to participate in hostilities, combatants have the right to status of Prisoners of War when captured during an international armed conflict
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Civilians
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".[1] The term "civilian" is slightly different from a non-combatant under the law of war, as some non-combatants are not civilians (for example, military chaplains attached to the belligerent armed forces or neutral military personnel). Under international law, civilians in the territories of a party to an armed conflict are entitled to certain privileges under the customary laws of war and international treaties such as the Fourth Geneva Convention
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Gas Masks
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases. The mask forms a sealed cover over the nose and mouth, but may also cover the eyes and other vulnerable soft tissues of the face. Some gas masks are also respirators, though the word gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment (e.g. field protective mask). The user of the gas mask is not protected from gas that the skin can absorb. Most gas mask filters will last around 24 hours in a nuclear biological chemical (NBC) situation. Airborne toxic materials may be gaseous (for example, sulfur mustard and chlorine gas) or particulates (such as biological agents). Many gas masks include protection from both types
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Civilian Casualties
Civilian
Civilian
casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers. Under the law of war, civilian casualties are civilians who perished or suffered wounds as a result of wartime acts
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Military Personnel
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces. Their roles, pay, and obligations differ according to their military branch (army, navy, marines, air force, and sometimes coast guard), rank (officer, non-commissioned officer, or enlisted recruit), and their military task when deployed on operations and on exercise.Contents1 Overview 2 Demographics 3 Recruitment 4 Initial training 5 Terms of service5.1 Minimum service period 5.2 Military law 5.3 Posting and deployment 5.4 Perks6 Appearance 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit] Those who serve in a typical large land force are soldiers, making up an army. Those who serve in seagoing forces are seamen or sailors, and their branch is a navy or coast guard. Marines
Marines
serve in a marine corps
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Treaty Of Versailles
 Germany[1]Principal Allies  United States[1]  British Empire[1]  France[1]  Italy[1]  Japan[1]Others  Belgium[1]  Bolivia[1]  Brazil[1]  China[1]  Cuba[1]  Ecuador[1]  Greece[1]  Guatemala[1]  Haiti[1]  The Hedjaz[1]  Honduras[1]  Liberia[1]  Nicaragua[1]  Panama[1]  Peru[1]  Poland[1]  Portugal[1]  Romania[1]  The Serb-Croat-Slovene State[1]  Siam  Czechoslovakia[1]  Uruguay[1]DepositaryFrench Government[5]LanguagesFrench and English[5] Treaty of
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First Austrian Republic
The First Austrian Republic
Republic
(German: Republik Österreich) was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I
World War I
which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic
Republic
of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria
Federal State of Austria
based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss
Engelbert Dollfuss
and the Fatherland's Front in 1934. The Republic's constitution was enacted in October 1, 1920 and amended on December 7, 1929
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Kingdom Of Bulgaria
Royal anthem "Anthem of His Majesty the Tsar" Химн на Негово Величество Царя  (Bulgarian) Himn na Negovo Velichestvo Tsarya  (transliteration)The Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1942.Capital SofiaLanguages BulgarianReligion Bulgarian OrthodoxGovernment Constitutional monarchy Tsar
Tsar
(King) •  1908–1918 Ferdinand I •  1918–1943 Boris III •  1943–1946 Simeon IIChairman of the Council of Ministers •  1908–1911 Aleksandar Malinov
Aleksandar Malinov
(first) •  1944–1946 Kimon Georgiev
Kimon Georgiev
(last)Legislature National AssemblyHistorical era World War I, interwar period, World War II •  Independence declared 5 October (o. s
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Central Powers
The Central Powers
Central Powers
(German: Mittelmächte; Hungarian: Központi hatalmak; Turkish: İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; Bulgarian: Централни сили, romanized: Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria—hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance[1] (German: Vierbund)—was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I (1914–18). It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente. The Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany
Germany
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1879
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Austria-Hungary
Coordinates: 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Austro-Hungarian Empire.mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal ↓Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie  (German)Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia  (Hungarian)1867-1918 Civil ensign[a] Coat of arms Motto: Indivisibiliter ac inseparabiliter‘Indivisibly and inseparably’Anthem: Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze’God shall save, God shall protect‘Austria- Hungary
Hungary
on the eve of World War IAustro-Hungarian
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Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks,[a] also known in English as the Bolshevists,[2][b] was a faction founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov that split from the Menshevik faction[c] of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) at its Second Party Congress in 1903.[4] The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk
Minsk
to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
were by 1905 a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism. They considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia
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