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Geneva Convention
The Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term Geneva Convention usually denotes the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War
Second World War
(1939–45), which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties, and added two new conventions. The Geneva Conventions extensively defined the basic rights of wartime prisoners (civilians and military personnel); established protections for the wounded and sick; and established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone
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Geneva Protocol
The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva
Geneva
Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It was signed at Geneva
Geneva
on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928. It was registered in League of Nations
League of Nations
Treaty Series on 7 September 1929.[4] The Geneva
Geneva
Protocol is a protocol to the Convention for the Supervision of the International Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in Implements of War signed on the same date, and followed the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. It prohibits the use of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods of warfare"
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Enlightenment In Spain
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain
Spain
in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity."[1] The period of reform and 'enlightened despotism' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, and improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Kingdom Of Denmark
Denmark
Denmark
(/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈdanmɑɡ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,[N 9] is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway,[N 10] and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,[N 2][10] with the largest being Zealand, Funen
Funen
and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Grand Duchy Of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Kingdom Of The Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; pronounced [ˈkoːnɪŋkrɛiɡ dɛr ˈneːdərlɑndə(n)] (listen)),[nb 2] commonly known as the Netherlands,[nb 3] is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies
West Indies
islands ( Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
and Lesser Antilles). The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten—are constituent countries (landen in Dutch) and participate on a basis of equality as partners in the kingdom.[7] In practice, however, most of the kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises roughly 98% of the kingdom's land area and population—on behalf of the entire kingdom
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Kingdom Of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
(Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1248, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Switzerland
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe.[9][note 4] It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern.[1][2][note 1] Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau
Swiss Plateau
and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi)
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Kingdom Of Württemberg
The Kingdom of Württemberg
Württemberg
(German: Königreich Württemberg; German pronunciation: [ˌkøːnɪkʁai̯ç ˈvʏʁtm̩bɛʁk]) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg. The kingdom was a continuation of the Duchy of Württemberg, which existed from 1495 to 1805.[1] Prior to 1495, Württemberg
Württemberg
was a County in the former Duchy of Swabia, which had dissolved after the death of Duke Conradin
Conradin
in 1268. The borders of the Kingdom of Württemberg, as defined in 1813, lay between 47°34' and 49°35' north and 8°15' and 10°30' east. The greatest distance north to south comprised 225 kilometres (140 mi) and the greatest east to west was 160 kilometres (99 mi)
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Convention Relating To The Status Of Refugees
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee
Refugee
Convention, is a United Nations
United Nations
multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. The Convention also sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. The Convention also provides for some visa-free travel for holders of travel documents issued under the convention
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Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize (Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901,[3] it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[4] As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year
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World War I
Allied victory Central Powers
Central Powers
victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of all continental empires in Europe
Europe

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