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Generic Trademark
A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, usually against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide.[1] A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic. This typically happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service
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Gendercide
Note: Varies by jurisdictionAssassination Cannibalism Child murder Consensual homicide Contract killing Crime of passion Depraved-heart murder Execution-style murder Felony murder rule Feticide Honor killing Human sacrifice InfanticideChild sacrificeInternet homicide Lonely hearts killer Lust murder Lynching Mass murder Mass shooting Misdemeanor murder Murder–suicide Poisoning Proxy murder Pseudocommando Serial killer Spree killer Thrill killing Torture murder Vehicle-ramming attackManslaughterIn English law Voluntary manslaughter Negligent homicide Vehicular homicideNon-criminal homicideNote: Varies by jurisdictionAssisted suicide Capital punishment Euthanasia Feticide Justifiable homicide WarBy victim or victimsSuicideFamilyAvunculicide (Nepoticide) Familicide Mariticide Uxoricide ProlicideFilicide Infanticide NeonaticideSiblicideFratricide SororicideParricideMatri
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Mind Share
Mind share relates generally to the development of consumer awareness or popularity, and is one of the main objectives of advertising and promotion. When people think of examples of a product type or category, they usually think of a limited number of brand names. The aim of mind share is to establish a brand as being one of the best kinds of a given product or service, and to even have the brand name become a synonym for the product or service offered.[1] For example, a prospective buyer of a college education will have several thousand colleges to choose from. However, the evoked set, or set of schools considered, will probably be limited to about ten. Of these ten, the colleges that the buyer is most familiar with will receive the greatest attention. Marketers and promoters of mind share try to maximize the popularity of their product, so that the brand co-exists with deeper, more empirical categories of objects. Kleenex, for example, can distinguish itself as a type of tissue
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Right To Quote
Right to quote or right of quotation or quotation right is one of the copyright exceptions[1] provided by the Berne Convention, article 10: "It shall be permissible to make quotations ..
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Orphan Works
An orphan work is a copyright protected work for which rightsholders are positively indeterminate or uncontactable. Sometimes the names of the originators or rightsholders are known, yet it is impossible to contact them because additional details cannot be found.[1] A work can become orphaned through rightsholders being unaware of their holding, or by their demise (e.g. deceased persons or defunct companies) and establishing inheritance has proved impracticable.[2] In other cases, comprehensively diligent research fails to determine any authors, creators or originators for a work.Contents1 Extent 2 Impact 3 Causes 4 Specifics by country4.1 Canada 4.2 European Union 4.3 United Kingdom 4.4 United States 4.5 Other nations5 See also 6 ReferencesExtent[edit] Precise figures of orphan works are not readily available, even though libraries, archives and museums hold a vast number of them
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5] Other works are actively dedicated
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Societal Views On Intellectual Property
Intellectual property
Intellectual property
(or "IP") is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks. It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.[1][2] Intellectual property
Intellectual property
law has evolved over centuries. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.[3] The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods
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Outline Of Intellectual Property
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to intellectual property: Intellectual property
Intellectual property
– intangible assets such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs
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Jell-O
Jell-O
Jell-O
is a registered trademark of Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods
for varieties of gelatin desserts (fruit gels), puddings, and no-bake cream pies. The original gelatin desserts are sometimes referred to as jello.Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 Early history 2.2 Going mainstream 2.3 Baby boom 2.4 Sales decline and turnaround3 Jell-O
Jell-O
shots 4 Manufacturing and tourism 5 Advertising 6 In culture6.1 Mormonism7 Current flavors7.1 Gelatin 7.2 Pudding8 Discontinued flavors 9 See also 10 Gallery 11 References 12 External linksDescription[edit]Lime Jell-O Jell-O
Jell-O
is sold prepared (ready to eat) or in powder form, and is available in various colors and flavors. The powder contains powdered gelatin and flavorings, including sugar or artificial sweeteners. It is dissolved in hot water, then chilled and allowed to set
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Good (economics And Accounting)
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants[1] and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product. A common distinction is made between goods that are tangible property, and services, which are non-Physical.[2] A good may be a consumable item that is useful to people but scarce in relation to its demand, so that human effort is required to obtain it. In contrast, free goods, such as air, are naturally in abundant supply and need no conscious effort to obtain them. Personal goods are things such as televisions, living room furniture, wallets, cellular telephones, almost anything owned or used on a daily basis that is not food related. Commercial goods are construed as any tangible product that is manufactured and then made available for supply to be used in an industry of commerce. Commercial goods could be tractors, commercial vehicles, mobile structures, airplanes and even roofing materials
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Service (economics)
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The benefits of such a service are held to be demonstrated by the buyer's willingness to make the exchange. Public services are those that society (nation state, fiscal union, region) as a whole pays for. Using resources, skill, ingenuity, and experience, service providers benefit service consumers.Contents1 Five I's1.1 Intangibility 1.2 Inconsistency (variability) 1.3 Involvement2 Service quality 3 Specification 4 Delivery 5 Service-commodity goods continuum 6 Service types 7 List of countries by tertiary output 8 See also 9 ReferencesFive I's[edit] Services can be described in terms of I's. Intangibility[edit] Services are by definition intangible. They are not manufactured, transported or stocked. It is used in marketing to describe the inability to assess the value gained from an activity using any tangible e Services cannot be stored for a future use
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Market Dominance Strategies
Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings. There is often a geographic element to the competitive landscape. In defining market dominance, you must see to what extent a product, brand, or firm controls a product category in a given geographic area.[1] Calculating[edit] There are several ways of calculating market dominance. The most direct is market share. This is the percentage of the total market served by a firm or brand. A declining scale of market shares is common in most industries: that is, if the industry leader has say 50% share, the next largest might have 25% share, the next 12% share, the next 6% share, and all remaining firms combined might have 7% share. Market share is not a perfect proxy of market dominance. The influences of customers, suppliers, competitors in related industries, and government regulations must be taken into account
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Kleenex
Kleenex is a brand name for a variety of paper-based products such as facial tissue, bathroom tissue, paper towels, tampons, and diapers. Often used informally as a genericized trademark for facial tissue in the United States, the name Kleenex is a registered trademark of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Kleenex products are manufactured in 30 countries and sold in more than 170 countries. Kleenex brands include Cottonelle, Huggies, and VIVA.Contents1 History 2 Kleenex Trademark 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]A box of Kleenex tissuesThe first Western facial tissue, introduced in 1924 and originally marketed as a way to remove cold cream or makeup (it had been in use for centuries before in Japan; see History of facial tissue for details).[1] It was a disposable substitute for face towels or cotton wool. In 1925, the first Kleenex tissue ad was used in magazines showing "the new secret of keeping a pretty skin as used by famous movie stars..."
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Genocide
European colonization of the AmericasDzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest DestinyIndian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932Soviet genocide Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet UnionSoviet famine of 1932–33Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933Mass Deportations during World War IIKalmyks, 1943 Chechens and Ingush, 1944 Crimean Tatars, 1944Nazi Holoc
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ChapStick
ChapStick is a brand name of lip balm manufactured by Pfizer Consumer Healthcare and used in many countries worldwide. It is intended to help treat and prevent chapped lips, hence the name. Many varieties also include sunscreen in order to prevent sunburn. Due to its popularity, the term has become a genericized trademark. It popularly refers to any lip balm contained in a lipstick-style tube and applied in the same manner as lipstick. However, the term is still a registered trademark, with rights exclusively owned by Pfizer. Its main competitors in the US, Carmex and Blistex, also use the popular lipstick-style tube for their lip balm products. In Iceland and in the United Kingdom, the product's main competitor is Lypsyl, made by Novartis Consumer Health and distributed in similar packaging to ChapStick.Contents1 History 2 Composition 3 Uses 4 Marketing 5 Controversy 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] In the early 1880s, Dr
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Dumpster
A dumpster is a type of mobile garbage bin designed to be brought and taken away by a special truck, or to a bin that a specially designed garbage truck lifts, empties into its hopper, and lowers, on the spot.[1][2] The word is a genericized trademark of Dumpster, an American brand name for a specific design
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