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General Purpose Register
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Registers usually consist of a small amount of fast storage, although some registers have specific hardware functions, and may be read-only or write-only. Registers are typically addressed by mechanisms other than main memory, but may in some cases be assigned a memory address e.g. DEC PDP-10, ICT 1900. Almost all computers, whether load/store architecture or not, load data from a larger memory into registers where it is used for arithmetic operations and is manipulated or tested by machine instructions. Manipulated data is then often stored back to main memory, either by the same instruction or by a subsequent one
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Computer Architecture
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems
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Stack (data Structure)
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations:push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most recently added element that was not yet removed.The order in which elements come off a stack gives rise to its alternative name, LIFO (last in, first out). Additionally, a peek operation may give access to the top without modifying the stack.[1] The name "stack" for this type of structure comes from the analogy to a set of physical items stacked on top of each other, which makes it easy to take an item off the top of the stack, while getting to an item deeper in the stack may require taking off multiple other items first.[2] Considered as a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection, the push and pop operations occur only at one end of the structure, referred to as the top of the stack
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32-bit
In computer architecture, 32-bit
32-bit
integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 32 bits (4 octets) wide. Also, 32-bit
32-bit
CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit
32-bit
microprocessors are the norm.Contents1 Range for storing integers 2 Technical history 3 Architectures 4 Applications 5 Images 6 File
File
formats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksRange for storing integers[edit] A 32-bit
32-bit
register can store 232 different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits depends on the integer representation used
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Data (computing)
Data
Data
(/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DAT-ə, /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə;[1] treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation. Data
Data
(or datum – a single unit of data) requires interpretation to become information. To translate data to information, there must be several known factors considered. The factors involved are determined by the creator of the data and the desired information. The term metadata is used to reference the data about the data. Metadata
Metadata
may be implied, specified or given. Data
Data
relating to physical events or processes will also have a temporal component. In almost all cases this temporal component is implied
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Integer (computer Science)
In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers. Integral data types may be of different sizes and may or may not be allowed to contain negative values. Integers are commonly represented in a computer as a group of binary digits (bits). The size of the grouping varies so the set of integer sizes available varies between different types of computers. Computer hardware, including virtual machines, nearly always provide a way to represent a processor register or memory address as an integer.Contents1 Value and representation 2 Common integral data types2.1 Bytes
Bytes
and octets 2.2 Words 2.3 Short integer2.3.1 Common short integer sizes2.4 Long integer2.4.1 Common long integer sizes2.5 Long long3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesValue and representation[edit] The value of an item with an integral type is the mathematical integer that it corresponds to
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Character (computing)
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.[1] Examples of characters include letters, numerical digits, common punctuation marks (such as "." or "-"), and whitespace. The concept also includes control characters, which do not correspond to symbols in a particular natural language, but rather to other bits of information used to process text in one or more languages
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Bit Array
A bit array (also known as bit map , bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits. It can be used to implement a simple set data structure. A bit array is effective at exploiting bit-level parallelism in hardware to perform operations quickly. A typical bit array stores kw bits, where w is the number of bits in the unit of storage, such as a byte or word, and k is some nonnegative integer. If w does not divide the number of bits to be stored, some space is wasted due to internal fragmentation.Contents1 Definition 2 Basic operations 3 More complex operations3.1 Population / Hamming weight 3.2 Inversion 3.3 Find first one4 Compression 5 Advantages and disadvantages 6 Applications 7 Language support 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDefinition[edit] A bit array is a mapping from some domain (almost always a range of integers) to values in the set 0, 1
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Primary Memory
Computer
Computer
data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU
CPU
consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
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Index Register
An index register in a computer's CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations. The contents of an index register is added to (in some cases subtracted from) an immediate address (one that is part of the instruction itself) to form the "effective" address of the actual data (operand). Special
Special
instructions are typically provided to test the index register and, if the test fails, increments the index register by an immediate constant and branches, typically to the start of the loop
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Stack Pointer
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program. This kind of stack is also known as an execution stack, program stack, control stack, run-time stack, or machine stack, and is often shortened to just "the stack". Although maintenance of the call stack is important for the proper functioning of most software, the details are normally hidden and automatic in high-level programming languages. Many computer instruction sets provide special instructions for manipulating stacks. A call stack is used for several related purposes, but the main reason for having one is to keep track of the point to which each active subroutine should return control when it finishes executing. An active subroutine is one that has been called but is yet to complete execution after which control should be handed back to the point of call
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Run-time Stack
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program. This kind of stack is also known as an execution stack, program stack, control stack, run-time stack, or machine stack, and is often shortened to just "the stack". Although maintenance of the call stack is important for the proper functioning of most software, the details are normally hidden and automatic in high-level programming languages. Many computer instruction sets provide special instructions for manipulating stacks. A call stack is used for several related purposes, but the main reason for having one is to keep track of the point to which each active subroutine should return control when it finishes executing. An active subroutine is one that has been called but is yet to complete execution after which control should be handed back to the point of call
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Stack Machine
In computer science, computer engineering and programming language implementations, a stack machine is a type of computer. In some cases, the term refers to a software scheme that simulates a stack machine. The main difference from other computers is that most of its instructions operate on a pushdown stack of numbers rather than numbers in registers. A stack computer is programmed with a reverse Polish notation instruction set. Most computer systems implement a stack in some form to pass parameters and link to subroutines
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Central Processing Unit
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O
I/O
circuitry.[2] The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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Status Register
A status register, flag register, or condition code register is a collection of status flag bits for a processor. An example is the FLAGS register of the x86 architecture or flags in a program status word (PSW) register. The status register is a hardware register that contains information about the state of the processor. Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by the machine code instructions executing on the processor. The status register lets an instruction take action contingent on the outcome of a previous instruction. Typically, flags in the status register are modified as effects of arithmetic and bit manipulation operations. For example, a Z bit may be set if the result of the operation is zero and cleared if it is nonzero. Other classes of instructions may also modify the flags to indicate status
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Truth Value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.[1]Contents1 Classical logic 2 Intuitionistic and constructive logic 3 Multi-valued logic 4 Algebraic semantics 5 In other theories 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksClassical logic[edit] ⊤ true  ·∧· conjunction¬↕↕ ⊥ false·∨· disjunction Negation interchanges true with false and conjunction with disjunctionIn classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are true (1 or T), and untrue or false (0 or ⊥); that is, classical logic is a two-valued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain
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