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Gemini Program
2:Gemini 8 Gemini 9ALaunch site(s) Cape Kennedy Air Force Station LC-19Vehicle informationVehicle type CapsuleCrew vehicle GeminiCrew capacity 2Launch vehicle(s) Titan II
Titan II
GLV Atlas-Agena
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Juno I
The Juno I
Juno I
was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958. A member of the Redstone rocket family, it was derived from the Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
sounding rocket. It is commonly confused with the Juno II
Juno II
launch vehicle, which was derived from the PGM-19 Jupiter
PGM-19 Jupiter
medium-range ballistic missile.Contents1 Development 2 History 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesDevelopment[edit] The Juno I
Juno I
consisted of a Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
rocket with a fourth stage mounted on top of the "tub" of the third stage, and fired after third-stage burnout to boost the payload and fourth stage to an orbital velocity of 8 kilometres per second (29,000 km/h; 18,000 mph)
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Ranger Program
The Ranger program
Ranger program
was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States
United States
in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. The Ranger spacecraft were designed to take images of the lunar surface, transmitting those images to Earth until the spacecraft were destroyed upon impact. A series of mishaps, however, led to the failure of the first six flights. At one point, the program was called "shoot and hope".[1] Congress launched an investigation into “problems of management” at NASA
NASA
Headquarters and Jet Propulsion Laboratory.[2] After two reorganizations of the agencies,[citation needed] Ranger 7 successfully returned images in July 1964, followed by two more successful missions. Ranger was originally designed, beginning in 1959, in three distinct phases, called "blocks"
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Surveyor Program
The Surveyor program
Surveyor program
was a NASA
NASA
program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon. Its primary goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of soft landings on the Moon. The Surveyor craft were the first American spacecraft to achieve soft landing on an extraterrestrial body. The missions called for the craft to travel directly to the Moon
Moon
on an impact trajectory, a journey that lasted 63 to 65 hours, and ended with a deceleration of just over three minutes to a soft landing. The program was implemented by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL) to prepare for the Apollo program
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Lunar Orbiter Program
The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States
United States
from 1966 through 1967. Intended to help select Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moon's surface,[1] they provided the first photographs from lunar orbit. All five missions were successful, and 99% of the Moon
Moon
was mapped from photographs taken with a resolution of 60 meters (200 ft) or better. The first three missions were dedicated to imaging 20 potential manned lunar landing sites, selected based on Earth-based observations. These were flown at low-inclination orbits. The fourth and fifth missions were devoted to broader scientific objectives and were flown in high-altitude polar orbits
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Viking Program
The Viking program
Viking program
consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1
Viking 1
and Viking 2.[1] Each spacecraft was composed of two main parts: an orbiter designed to photograph the surface of Mars
Mars
from orbit, and a lander designed to study the planet from the surface. The orbiters also served as communication relays for the landers once they touched down. The Viking program
Viking program
grew from NASA's earlier, even more ambitious, Voyager Mars
Mars
program, which was not related to the successful Voyager deep space probes of the late 1970s
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Voyager Program
The Voyager program
Voyager program
is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1
Voyager 1
and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.[1] The probes were launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune. Although their original mission was to study only the planetary systems of Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn, Voyager 2
Voyager 2
continued on to Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune. The Voyagers now explore the outer boundary of the heliosphere in interstellar space; their mission has been extended three times and they continue to transmit useful scientific data
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Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
(LRO) is a NASA
NASA
robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the
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New Horizons
New Frontiers programJuno → New Horizons
New Horizons
is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.[2] Engineered by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a team led by S
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Expendable Launch Vehicle
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space. Historically, satellites and human spacecraft are launched mainly using expendable launchers. Their components are not recovered. This contrasts with a reusable launch system or RLV, in which some or all of the components are recovered intact. The vehicle typically consists of several rocket stages, discarded one by one as the vehicle gains altitude and speed. A few companies are developing reusable launch systems intended to cut costs. A reusable launch vehicle, such as the SpaceX
SpaceX
Falcon 9 first-stage booster, may be flown in "expendable configuration" to increase performance, although this is unusual. The now-retired Space Shuttle was one of the earliest RLVs, and was intended to greatly reduce launch costs
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Vanguard (rocket)
The Vanguard rocket[2] was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, to quickly orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I
Juno I
rocket, making Vanguard I
Vanguard I
the second successful U.S. orbital launch. Vanguard rockets were used by Project Vanguard
Project Vanguard
from 1957 to 1959. Of the eleven Vanguard rockets which the project attempted to launch, three successfully placed satellites into orbit
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Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle
The Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, designed for NASA's Project Mercury, was the first American manned space booster
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Pioneer Program
The Pioneer program
Pioneer program
is a series of United States
United States
unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration. There were a number of such missions in the program, but the most notable were Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10
and Pioneer 11, which explored the outer planets and left the solar system
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Atlas LV-3B
The Atlas LV-3B, Atlas D Mercury Launch Vehicle or Mercury-Atlas Launch Vehicle, was a human-rated expendable launch system used as part of the United States Project Mercury
Project Mercury
to send astronauts into low Earth orbit. Manufactured by American aircraft manufacturing company Convair, it was derived from the SM-65D Atlas
SM-65D Atlas
missile, and was a member of the Atlas family of rockets. The Atlas D missile was the natural choice for Project Mercury
Project Mercury
since it was the only launch vehicle in the US arsenal that could put the spacecraft into orbit and also had a large number of flights to gather data from
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Saturn (rocket Family)
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond. Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the launch vehicles for the Apollo moon program. Three versions were built and flown: Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn name was proposed by von Braun in October 1958 as a logical successor to the Jupiter series as well as the Roman god's powerful position.[1] In 1963, president John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
identified the Saturn I
Saturn I
SA-5 launch as being the point where US lift capability would surpass the Soviets, after having been behind since Sputnik
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