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Gaston Cros
Colonel
Colonel
Marie Augstin Gaston Cros
Gaston Cros
(known as Gaston Cros) (6 October 1861 – 10 May 1915) was a French army officer and archaeologist. He was born in Alsace
Alsace
and was displaced when that territory was incorporated into the German Empire. He joined the French Army
French Army
as a lieutenant and saw action in Tonkin
Tonkin
before spending several years surveying in Tunisia, receiving the honours of membership of Vietnamese and Tunisian orders and appointment as a chevalier of the Legion of Honour. In 1901 Cros was appointed head of the French archaeological expedition to Girsu, Iraq
Iraq
to continue the work of Ernest de Sarzec
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Carte De Visite
The carte de visite[1] (French: [kaʁt də vizit], visiting card), abbreviated CdV, was a type of small photograph which was patented in Paris
Paris
by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri
André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri
in 1854, although first used by Louis Dodero.[2][3] It was usually made of an albumen print, which was a thin paper photograph mounted on a thicker paper card. The size of a carte de visite is 54.0 mm (2.125 in) × 89 mm (3.5 in) mounted on a card sized 64 mm (2.5 in) × 100 mm (4 in). In 1854, Disdéri had also patented a method of taking eight separate negatives on a single plate, which reduced production costs. The Carte de Visite was slow to gain widespread use until 1859, when Disdéri published Emperor Napoleon III's photos in this format.[4] This made the format an overnight success
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Ecole Spéciale Militaire De Saint-Cyr
The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the " Special
Special
Military School of Saint-Cyr") is the foremost French military academy. It is often referred to as Saint-Cyr (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃ siʁ]). Its motto is "Ils s'instruisent pour vaincre": literally "They study to vanquish" or "Training for victory". French cadet officers are called "saint-cyriens", or "cyrards"
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Tirailleur
A tirailleur (French: [tiʁajœʁ]), in the Napoleonic era, was a type of light infantry trained to skirmish ahead of the main columns. Subsequently tirailleurs was used by the French Army
French Army
as a designation for infantry recruited in the French colonial territories during the 19th and 20th centuries, or for metropolitan units serving in a light infantry role. The French army currently maintains one tirailleur regiment, the 1er régiment de tirailleurs. This regiment was known as the 170th infantry regiment between 1964 and 1994
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Colonel
Colonel
Colonel
(abbreviated Col., Col or COL and pronounced /ˈkɜːrnəl/, similar to "kernel") is a senior military officer rank below the general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Iceland
Iceland
or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations. Historically, in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army. Modern usage varies greatly, and in some cases the term is used as an honorific title that may have no direct relationship to military service. The rank of colonel is typically above the rank of lieutenant colonel. The rank above colonel is typically called brigadier, brigade general or brigadier general. Equivalent naval ranks may be called captain or ship-of-the-line captain
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Battle Of The Yser
 Belgium  France Naval support:  United Kingdom  GermanyCommanders and leaders King Albert I Émile Dossin Augustin Michel Alphonse Jacques Pierre Ronarc'h Paul Grossetti Horace Hood Albrecht of Württemberg Hans von BeselerStrengthBelgium: 52,000 men[1] France: 4,000 men[1] Britain: 3 monitors various auxiliary ships 60,000–85,000 men[1]Casualties and lossesBelgium: 3,500 killed[2] 15,000 wounded[2]v t eGerman invasion of Belgium, 1914BattlesHaelen Liège Dinant Namur Charleroi Mons AntwerpNete BuggenhoutYser 1st YpresLangemarck Gheluvelt Nonne BosschenAssociated articlesRape of Belgium German occupation of Belgiumv t eRace to the Sea1st Picardy Flirey Albert Arras La Bassée Armentières Messines Yser 1st YpresLangemarck Gheluvelt Nonne BosschenThe Battle of the
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Saverne
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Saverne
Saverne
(French: Saverne, pronounced [savɛʁn]; Alsatian: Zàwere [ˈd̥sɐːvəʁə]; (German:  Zabern (help·info))) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin
Bas-Rhin
department in Grand Est
Grand Est
in north-eastern France. It is situated on the Rhine-Marne canal
Rhine-Marne canal
at the foot of a pass over the Vosges Mountains, and 45 km (27 mi) N.W
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Bas-Rhin
Bas-Rhin
Bas-Rhin
(French pronunciation: ​[bɑ.ʁɛ̃]; Alsatian: Unterelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est
Grand Est
region of France. The name means "Lower Rhine", however, geographically speaking it belongs to the Upper Rhine
Rhine
region. It is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the traditional Alsace
Alsace
region, with 1,112,815 inhabitants in 2014. The prefecture and the General Council are based in Strasbourg
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Franco-Prussian War
Baden  Bavaria Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt French Empirea German Empired French RepublicbCommanders and leaders William I Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke Crown Prince Friedrich Prince Friedrich Karl Karl F. von Steinmetz Albrecht von Roon Napoleon
Napoleon
III (POW) F. A
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Lunéville
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Lunéville
Lunéville
(French pronunciation: ​[lynevil] ; German, obsolete:  Lünstadt (help·info)) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle
Meurthe-et-Moselle
department in France. It is a subprefecture of the department and lies on the Meurthe River at its confluence with the Vezouze.Contents1 History 2 Treaties 3 Industry 4 Notable people 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Église Saint-Jacques in Lunéville, established by Stanislaus I
Stanislaus I
of Poland in 1745. Lunéville
Lunéville
was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine
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Meurthe-et-Moselle
Meurthe-et- Moselle
Moselle
(French pronunciation: ​[mœʁte mɔzɛl]) is a department in the Grand Est
Grand Est
region of France, named after the Meurthe and Moselle
Moselle
rivers.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Economy 4 Demographics 5 Tourism 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Meurthe-et- Moselle
Moselle
was created in 1871 at the end of the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
from the parts of the former departments of Moselle
Moselle
and Meurthe which remained French territory. The current boundary between Meurthe-et- Moselle
Moselle
and Moselle
Moselle
was the border between France
France
and Germany
Germany
from 1871 to 1919 and again between 1940 and 1944
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Nancy, France
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Part of the series onLorraineFlag of Lorraine
Lorraine
since the 13th centuryHistory
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Sub-lieutenant
Sub-lieutenant
Sub-lieutenant
is a junior military officer rank. In many navies, a sub-lieutenant is a naval commissioned or subordinate officer, ranking below a lieutenant. In the Royal Navy (RN) the rank of sub-lieutenant is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the British Army
British Army
and of flying officer in the Royal Air Force (RAF). In some armies, sub-lieutenant is the lowest officer rank
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Ad Hoc
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning "for this". In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to be able to be adapted to other purposes (compare with a priori). Common examples are ad hoc organizations, committees, and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. In other fields, the term could refer, for example, to a military unit created under special circumstances, a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol (e.g
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Tonkinese Rifles
The Tonkinese Rifles
Tonkinese Rifles
(tirailleurs tonkinois) were a corps of Tonkinese light infantrymen raised in 1884 to support the operations of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps. Led by French officers seconded from the marine infantry, Tonkinese riflemen fought in several engagements against the Chinese during the Sino-French War
Sino-French War
and took part in expeditions against Vietnamese insurgents during the subsequent French Pacification of Tonkin. The French also organized similar units of indigenous riflemen from Annam and Cambodia
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Tonkin Expedition Commemorative Medal
The Tonkin
Tonkin
Expedition commemorative medal (French: Médaille commémorative de l'expédition du Tonkin) was awarded to all the French soldiers and sailors who took part in the battles of the Tonkin campaign and the Sino-French War
Sino-French War
between 1883 and 1885. The medal, decreed by a law of 6 September 1885, was minted at the Monnaie de Paris and distributed shortly before the Bastille Day parade on 14 July 1886 to around 65,000 soldiers and sailors
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