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Galvanic Cell
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell. It generally consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge, or individual half-cells separated by a porous membrane. Volta was the inventor of the voltaic pile, the first electrical battery
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Equilibrium Constant
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change. For a given set of reaction conditions, the equilibrium constant is independent of the initial analytical concentrations of the reactant and product species in the mixture. Thus, given the initial composition of a system, known equilibrium constant values can be used to determine the composition of the system at equilibrium
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Amalgam (chemistry)
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury. These alloys are formed through metallic bonding,[1] with the electrostatic attractive force of the conduction electrons working to bind all the positively charged metal ions together into a crystal lattice structure.[2] Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, the notable exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum
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Chemical Equilibrium
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.[1] Usually, this state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction. The reaction rates of the forward and backward reactions are generally not zero, but equal. Thus, there are no net changes in the concentrations of the reactant(s) and product(s)
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Electronegativity
Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.[1] An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance at which its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it. The term "electronegativity" was introduced by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1811,[2] though the concept was known even before that and was studied by many chemists including Avogadro.[2] In spite of its long history, an accurate scale of electronegativity was not developed until 1932, when Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
proposed an electronegativity scale, which depends on bond energies, as a development of valence bond theory.[3] It has been shown to correlate with a number of other chemical properties
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Semi-permeable Membrane
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.[dubious – discuss] The rate of passage depends on the pressure, concentration, and temperature of the molecules or solutes on either side, as well as the permeability of the membrane to each solute. Depending on the membrane and the solute, permeability may depend on solute size, solubility, properties, or chemistry. How the membrane is constructed to be selective in its permeability will determine the rate and the permeability. Many natural and synthetic materials thicker than a membrane are also semipermeable. One example of this is the thin film on the inside of the egg. Note that a semipermeable membrane is not the same as a selectively permeable membrane
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Work (physics)
W = F ⋅ s W = τ θPart of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second
Second
law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power Mechanical workMoment Mom
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Parthia
Parthia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, Parthian: 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, Middle Persian: 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥‎, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran. It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, and formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great. The region later served as the political and cultural base of the Eastern-Iranian Parni people and Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD)
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Electrical Conduction
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the flow of electric current. Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho). The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm-metre (Ω⋅m).[1][2][3] As an example, if a 1 m × 1 m × 1 m solid cube of material has sheet contacts on two opposite faces, and the resistance between these contacts is 1 Ω, then the resistivity of the material is 1 Ω⋅m. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the Greek letter σ (sigma), but κ (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or γ (gamma) are also occasionally used
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Precipitation (chemistry)
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant'. Without sufficient force of gravity (settling) to bring the solid particles together, the precipitate remains in suspension. After sedimentation, especially when using a centrifuge to press it into a compact mass, the precipitate may be referred to as a 'pellet'. Precipitation can be used as a medium. The precipitate-free liquid remaining above the solid is called the 'supernate' or 'supernatant'. Powders derived from precipitation have also historically been known as 'flowers'. When the solid appears in the form of cellulose fibers which have been through chemical processing, the process is often referred to as regeneration. Sometimes the formation of a precipitate indicates the occurrence of a chemical reaction
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Plating
Plating
Plating
is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface. Plating
Plating
has been done for hundreds of years; it is also critical for modern technology. Plating
Plating
is used to decorate objects, for corrosion inhibition, to improve solderability, to harden, to improve wearability, to reduce friction, to improve paint adhesion, to alter conductivity, to improve IR reflectivity, for radiation shielding, and for other purposes. Jewelry
Jewelry
typically uses plating to give a silver or gold finish. Thin-film deposition
Thin-film deposition
has plated objects as small as an atom,[1] therefore plating finds uses in nanotechnology. There are several plating methods, and many variations. In one method, a solid surface is covered with a metal sheet, and then heat and pressure are applied to fuse them (a version of this is Sheffield plate)
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Direct Current
Direct current
Direct current
(DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current
Direct current
may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for this type of current was galvanic current.[1] The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[2][3] Direct current
Direct current
may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a rectifier, which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction
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Cadmium
Cadmium
Cadmium
is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, namely zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds, and like mercury, it has a lower melting point than the transition metals in groups 3 through 11. Cadmium
Cadmium
and its congeners in group 12 are often not considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. The average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust
Earth's crust
is between 0.1 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm). It was discovered in 1817 simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium
Cadmium
occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and is a byproduct of zinc production
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Mercury (element)
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/).[4] A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature. Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide)
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Cadmium Sulfate
Cadmium
Cadmium
sulfate is the name of a series of related inorganic compounds with the formula CdSO4·xH2O. The most common form is the monohydrate CdSO4·H2O, but two other forms are known CdSO4·8/3H2O and the anhydrous salt (CdSO4). All salts are colourless and highly soluble in water. Structure, preparation, and occurrence[edit] X-ray crystallography
X-ray crystallography
shows that CdSO4·H2O is a typical coordination polymer
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Oxidation State
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound. Conceptually, the oxidation state, which may be positive, negative or zero, is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100% ionic, with no covalent component. This is never exactly true for real bonds. The term oxidation was first used by Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
to signify reaction of a substance with oxygen. Much later, it was realized that the substance, upon being oxidized, loses electrons, and the meaning was extended to include other reactions in which electrons are lost. Oxidation
Oxidation
states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative. In some cases, the average oxidation state of an element is a fraction, such as ​8⁄3 for iron in magnetite (Fe 3O 4)
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