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GPS
The Global Positioning System
System
(GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS
GPS
signals. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information
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U.S. Department Of Defense
742,000 (civilian) 1,300,000 (active duty military) 826,000 (National Guard and reserve): 2.87 million total[1] (2016)Annual budget US$530.1 billion (2010)[2] US$549.1 billion (2011)[3] US$553.0 billion (est. 2012) US$496.1 billion (2015)[4] US$534.3 billion (base FY2016)[4]Department executivesJim Mattis, Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, Deputy SecretaryChild agenciesU.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy U.S. Department of the Air ForceWebsite www.defense.govThe Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of DefenseThe Department of Defense (DoD,[5] USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces
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Senior Airman
Senior Airman (SrA) is the fourth enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, just above Airman First Class
Airman First Class
and below Staff Sergeant. It has a pay grade of E-4. Between its approval on 30 December 1975 (with implementation 1 June 1976) and 19 March 1991, Senior Airmen wore sleeve chevrons with blue center stars instead of silver to distinguish them from the non-commissioned officer rank of "Sergeant", also a pay grade of E-4. The latter was abolished in 1991 and the blue center star was changed to white to conform to all enlisted rank chevrons. The Air Force promotes an Airman First Class
Airman First Class
(A1C) to Senior Airman after 36 months time in service (TIS) and 20 months time in grade (TIG), or 28 months TIG, whichever occurs first
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 reference system also known as the Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid, is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian: Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
PZ-90. It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders.[1] The Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid uses a semi-major axis (equatorial radius) a of 6,378,245 m, and an inverse flattening 1/f of 298.3.[2]:220 Citations and notes[edit]^ slide 11, Borodko ^ Office, United States Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac; Office, Great Britain Nautical Almanac (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
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Legenda (satellite System)
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered.[1] Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. See also[edit]P-700 GranitReferences[edit]^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg. Thirty-six were launched .. Russian reconnaissance satellitesIMINTPhotographicYantar Zenit Orlets AlmazElectro-opticalAraks Arkon Enisei Kobalt PersonaSIGINTELINTTselina-2 LianaMASINTSecondary MissionOko US-KMO EKSKosmosThis Soviet Union–related article is a stub
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Map Projection
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.[1] Maps cannot be created without map projections. All map projections necessarily distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.[2]:1 More generally, the surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped even if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid; see below. Even more generally, projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, and manifolds
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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SRID
A spatial reference system (SRS) or coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference system defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems. Spatial reference systems are defined by the OGC's Simple feature access using well-known text, and support has been implemented by several standards-based geographic information systems. Spatial reference systems can be referred to using a SRID
SRID
integer, including EPSG
EPSG
codes defined by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers
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Horizontal Position Representation
A position representation is the parameters used to express a position relative to a reference. Representing position in three dimensions is often done by a Euclidean vector. However, when representing position relative to the Earth
Earth
it is often more convenient to represent vertical position as altitude or depth, and to use some other parameters to represent horizontal position. There are also several applications where only the horizontal position is of interest, this might e.g. be the case for ships and ground vehicles/cars. There are several options for horizontal position representations, each with different properties which makes them appropriate for different applications
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North American Vertical Datum Of 1988
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988
North American Vertical Datum of 1988
(NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988. NAVD 88 was established in 1991 by the minimum-constraint adjustment of geodetic leveling observations in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It held fixed the height of the primary tidal bench mark, referenced to the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 local mean sea level height value, at Rimouski, Quebec, Canada
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GRS 80
GRS 80, or Geodetic Reference System 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model.Contents1 Geodesy 2 Defining features of GRS 80 3 References 4 External linksGeodesy[edit] Geodesy
Geodesy
is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, its gravitational field and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion, earth tides, and crustal motion) in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth
Earth
abstracted from its topographic features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents, air pressure variations etc. and continued under the continental masses. The geoid, unlike the ellipsoid, is irregular and too complicated to serve as the computational surface on which to solve geometrical problems like point positioning
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ED50
ED50
ED50
("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II
World War II
for the international connection of geodetic networks. Background[edit] Some of the important battles of World War II
World War II
were fought on the borders of Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium
Belgium
and France, and the mapping of these countries had incompatible latitude and longitude positioning. This led to the setting up of ED50
ED50
as a consistent mapping datum for much of Western Europe. It was, and still is, used in much of Western Europe
Western Europe
apart from Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland, which have their own datums. It used the International Ellipsoid of 1924 ("Hayford-Ellipsoid" of 1909) (radius of the Earth's equator 6378.388 km, flattening 1/297, both exact)
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level, the geoid, or any other equipotential surface
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Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
(AFSPC), sometimes referred to informally as U.S. Space Command[7], is a major command of the United States
United States
Air Force, with its headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. AFSPC supports U.S. military operations worldwide through the use of many different types of satellite, launch and cyber operations. Operationally, AFSPC is an Air Force component command subordinate to U.S. Strategic Command
U.S. Strategic Command
(USSTRATCOM), a unified combatant command. It is the primary space force for the U.S. Armed Forces. More than 38,000 people perform AFSPC missions at 88 locations worldwide and comprises Regular Air Force, Air Force Reserve
Air Force Reserve
and Air National Guard military personnel, Department of the Air Force civilians (DAFC), and civilian military contractors
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United States Air Force
Department of Defense Department of the Air ForceHeadquarters The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.Motto(s) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win"[7] "Integrity first, Service before self, Excellence in all we do"[8]Colors Ultramarine
Ultramarine
blue, Golden yellow[9]          March The U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
 Play (help·info)Anniversaries 18 SeptemberEngagementsSee listMexican Expedition (As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps) World War I
World War I
(As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
Aviation Section, U.S

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U.S. Air Force
Department of Defense Department of the Air ForceHeadquarters The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.Motto(s) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win"[7] "Integrity first, Service before self, Excellence in all we do"[8]Colors Ultramarine
Ultramarine
blue, Golden yellow[9]          March The U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
 Play (help·info)Anniversaries 18 SeptemberEngagementsSee listMexican Expedition (As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps) World War I
World War I
(As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
Aviation Section, U.S

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