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G-force
The g-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" (lower-case character) is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass" (see the synonym specific weight). When the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses
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Centrifuge
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong. The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centrifugal acceleration causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the center. In a laboratory centrifuge that uses sample tubes, the radial acceleration causes denser particles to settle to the bottom of the tube, while low-density substances rise to the top.[1] There are three types of centrifuge designed for different applications. Industrial scale centrifuges are commonly used in manufacturing and waste processing to sediment suspended solids, or to separate immiscible liquids. An example is the cream separator found in dairies
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Newton's Laws Of Motion
Newton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion
are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. More precisely, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn't exist. These three laws have been expressed in several ways, over nearly three centuries,[1] and can be summarised as follows:First law: In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.[2][3]Second law: In an inertial reference frame, the vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration a of the object: F = ma
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Euclidean Vector
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric[1] or spatial vector,[2] or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction. Vectors can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra. A Euclidean vector
Euclidean vector
is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B,[3] and denoted by A B → . displaystyle overrightarrow AB
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Compressive Stress
In long, slender structural elements — such as columns or truss bars — an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area), usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. However, in geotechnical engineering, compressive stress is represented with positive values.This engineering-related article is a stub
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Tensile Stress
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting a weight, each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it. When a liquid is in a closed container under pressure, each particle gets pushed against by all the surrounding particles. The container walls and the pressure-inducing surface (such as a piston) push against them in (Newtonian) reaction. These macroscopic forces are actually the net result of a very large number of intermolecular forces and collisions between the particles in those molecules
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Surface Gravity
The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface. The surface gravity may be thought of as the acceleration due to gravity experienced by a hypothetical test particle which is very close to the object's surface and which, in order not to disturb the system, has negligible mass. Surface gravity is measured in units of acceleration, which, in the SI system, are meters per second squared
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Thrust
Thrust
Thrust
is a reaction force described quantitatively by Isaac Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system.[1] The force applied on a surface in a direction perpendicular or normal to the surface is called thrust
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Delta-v
Delta-v
Delta-v
(literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver. It is a scalar that has the units of speed. As used in this context, it is not the same as the physical change in velocity of the vehicle. Delta-v
Delta-v
is produced by reaction engines, such as rocket engines, and is proportional to the thrust per unit mass and the burn time
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Collision
A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Although the most common colloquial use of the word "collision" refers to incidents in which two or more objects collide with great force, the scientific use of the word "collision" implies nothing about the magnitude of the force. Some examples of physical interactions that scientists would consider collisions:An insect touches its antenna to the leaf of a plant. The antenna is said to collide with leaf. A cat walks through the grass. Each contact that its paws make with the ground is a collision
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Mass
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Gram
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme;[1] SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the temperature of melting ice"[2] (later at 4 °C, the temperature of maximum density of water)
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Newton (unit)
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion. See below for the conversion factors.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples 3 Commonly seen as kilonewtons 4 Conversion factors 5 See also 6 Notes and referencesDefinition[edit] One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in the direction of the applied force. In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared
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Pound (force)
The pound-force (symbol: lbf[1], sometimes lbf,[2]) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.[3] Pound force should not be confused with foot-pounds or pound-feet, which are units of torque, and may be written as "lbf⋅ft". They should not be confused with pound-mass (symbol: lb), often simply called pounds, which is a unit of mass.Contents1 Definitions1.1 Product of avoirdupois pound and standard gravity2 Conversion to other units 3 Foot–pound–second (FPS) systems of units 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesDefinitions[edit] The pound-force is equal to the gravitational force exerted on a mass of one avoirdupois pound on the surface of Earth
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Projectile
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.[1] Although any object in motion through space (for example a thrown baseball) may be called a projectile, the term more commonly refers to a ranged weapon.[2][3] Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory.Contents1 Motive force 2 Delivery projectiles 3 Sport projectiles 4 Kinetic projectiles 5 Wired projectiles 6 Typical projectile speeds 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksMotive force[edit] See also: Projectile
Projectile
motion Projectile
Projectile
and cartridge case for the massive World War II
World War II
Schwerer Gustav artillery piece. Most projectile weapons use the compression or expansion of gases as their motive force.Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions
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Gun
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles[1] that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser
Taser
guns, spearguns and harpoon guns). The means of projectile propulsion vary according to designs, but are traditionally effected by a high gas pressure contained within a shooting tube (gun barrel), produced either through the rapid combustion of propellants (as with firearms), or by mechanical compression (as with air guns). The high-pressure gas is introduced behind the projectile, accelerating it down the length of the tube, imparting sufficient launch velocity to sustain its further travel towards the target once the propelling gas ceases acting upon it at the end of the tube
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