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Fyodor Stravinsky
FYODOR IGNATIEVICH STRAVINSKY (Russian : Фёдор Игна́тиевич Страви́нский), 20 June 1843, in Golovintsy , Minsk Governorate – 4 December 1902) was a Russian bass opera singer and actor of Polish descent. He was the father of Igor Stravinsky and the grandfather of Soulima Stravinsky . LIFE AND CAREERHis father Ignacy was a Catholic and came from a noble Polish family of Sulima -Strawiński ; his mother, Alexandra Ivanovna Skorokhodova, was a daughter of a Russian small landowner. Fyodor was baptised in accordance with the Orthodox rite due to Imperial Law which stated that children born of mixed Catholic-Orthodox marriages had to be brought up in the Russian Orthodox faith . In 1869 he completed his education at the Nezhin Lyceum, where he sang in the church choir. He studied voice at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory from 1869–73
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Alexander Dargomyzhsky
ALEXANDER SERGEYEVICH DARGOMYZHSKY (Russian : Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Даргомы́жский) (14 February 1813 – 17 January 1869) was a 19th-century Russian composer. He bridged the gap in Russian opera composition between Mikhail Glinka
Mikhail Glinka
and the later generation of The Five and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
. Dargomyzhsky was born in Troitsko village, Belyovsky District , Tula Governorate, and educated in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
. He was already known as a talented musical amateur when in 1833 he met Mikhail Glinka
Mikhail Glinka
and was encouraged to devote himself to composition
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Rusalka (Dargomyzhsky)
RUSALKA (Russian : Руса́лка) is an opera in four acts, six tableaux, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky
Alexander Dargomyzhsky
, composed during 1848-1855. The Russian libretto was adapted by the composer from Pushkin\'s incomplete dramatic poem of the same name. It premiered on 4 May 1856 (Old Style ) at the Theatre-circus , conducted by Konstantin Lyadov (father of Anatoly Lyadov
Anatoly Lyadov
), choreographed by Marius Petipa
Marius Petipa
and Nikolay Goltz , but was badly received predominantly by the aristocracy. In 1859, the opera was again presented at the Bolshoi Theatre
Bolshoi Theatre
in Moscow, but it was not until 1865, when it was staged at the Mariinsky Theatre , that it was finally well received. The conductor was Eduard Nápravník ; the Prince was sung by Fyodor Petrovich Komissarzhevsky , the Princess by Darya Leonova , Miller by Osip Petrov , and Natasha by Yulya Platonova
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Tikhvin Cemetery
TIKHVIN CEMETERY (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery
Alexander Nevsky Monastery
, in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
. HISTORYBy the beginning of the 19th century, the Lazarevskoye Cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra was overcrowded, and it was decided to allocate a new site for burial. The cemetery, originally called Novo-Lazarevsky, was laid in 1823. In 1869-1871 in the northern part of the Novo-Lazarevsky cemetery a church-tomb was built, consecrated in the name of the miraculous icon of the Tikhvin Mother of God. The money for the construction of the church in the Byzantine-Russian style was donated by the merchants Polezhaev, for whose family members 20 places with 13 graves were allocated in the tomb. In 1876, the New Lazarevskoye cemetery was renamed Tikhvin. The church was closed in 1931 and remade by post office
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Saint Petersburg
SAINT PETERSBURG (Russian : Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. _Sankt-Peterburg_; IPA: ( listen )) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow
Moscow
, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city ). Situated on the Neva River , at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great on May 27 1703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint
Saint
Petersburg to PETROGRAD (Russian : Петрогра́д; IPA: ), in 1924 to LENINGRAD (Russian : Ленингра́д; IPA: ), and in 1991 back to Saint
Saint
Petersburg. Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918, Saint
Saint
Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. _russkiy yazik_) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia , Belarus , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine , and to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages . Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
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Old Style And New Style Dates
OLD STYLE (O.S.) and NEW STYLE (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian Calendar in favour of the Gregorian Calendar . Closely related is the custom of dual dating , where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries. This change was implemented subsequently in Protestant and Orthodox countries, usually at much later dates
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Homiel Raion
GOMEL DISTRICT, HOMIEĺSKI RAJON (Belarusian : Гомельскі раён) is a district of Gomel Region , in Belarus
Belarus
. REFERENCES * ^ "«Дзяржаўны зямельны кадастр Рэспублікі Беларусь»". www.gki.gov.by. Retrieved 10 December 2015
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Minsk Governorate
The MINSK GOVERNORATE (Russian : Минская губерния) or GOVERNMENT OF MINSK was a governorate (guberniya ) of the Russian Empire . The seat was in Minsk
Minsk
. It was created in 1793 from the land acquired in the partitions of Poland
Poland
, and lasted until 1921. CONTENTS * 1 Administrative structure * 2 Demographics * 3 Further reading * 4 External links ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE * Bobruysky Uyezd * Borisovsky Uyezd * Igumensky Uyezd * Minsky Uyezd * Mozyrsky Uyezd * Novogrudsky Uyezd (part of Grodno Governorate before 1843) * Pinsky Uyezd * Rechitsky Uyezd * Slutsky Uyezd Vileysky and Disnensky Uyezds passed to the Vilna Governorate in 1843. In 1919, Baranovichsky Uyezd was created from Novogorodoksky Uyezd and Nesvizhsky Uyezd was created from Slutsky Uyezd
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Bass (voice Type)
A BASS (/ˈbeɪs/ BAYSS ) is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types . According to The New Grove Dictionary of Opera
Opera
, a bass is typically classified as having a vocal range extending from around the second E below middle C to the E above middle C (i.e., E2–E4 ). Its tessitura , or comfortable range, is normally defined by the outermost lines of the bass clef . Categories of bass voices vary according to national style and classification system. Italians favour subdividing basses into the basso cantante (singing bass), basso buffo ("funny" bass), or the dramatic basso profondo (low bass). The American system identifies the bass-baritone, comic bass, lyric bass, and dramatic bass. The German fach system offers further distinctions: Spielbass (Bassbuffo), Schwerer Spielbass (Schwerer Bassbuffo), Charakterbass (Bassbariton), and Seriöser Bass. These classification systems can overlap
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Opera
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: _operas_; Italian plural: _opere_ ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition
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Igor Stravinsky
IGOR FYODOROVICH STRAVINSKY (sometimes spelled _Strawinski_, _Strawinsky_, or _Stravinskii_; Russian : И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский, tr. _Igorʹ Fëdorovič Stravinskij_; IPA: ; 17 June 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century . Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev and first performed in Paris by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes : _ The Firebird _ (1910), _Petrushka _ (1911) and the _Rite of Spring _ (1913). The last of these transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary who pushed the boundaries of musical design
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Soulima Stravinsky
SVIATOSLAV SOULIMA STRAVINSKY (Russian: Святослав Игоревич Сулима-Стравинский; Polish: Światosław Sulima Igorewicz Strawiński) (23 September 1910 – 28 November 1994) was a Swiss -American pianist, composer and musicologist of Russian, Polish and Ukrainian descent. As a pianist, he was considered an important interpreter of the works of his father, Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
, but as a composer he was overshadowed by his father. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Works * 2 References * 3 External links BIOGRAPHY Soulima Stravinsky was born in Lausanne
Lausanne
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, in 1910, the son of Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
and Kateryna Nossenko, and the grandson of Fyodor Stravinsky
Fyodor Stravinsky

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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome , known as the Pope , the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City , enclaved within Rome , Italy . The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one true church founded by Jesus Christ , that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles , and that the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter ; the Prince of the Apostles
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Ivan Sulyma
IVAN SULYMA (Polish : Iwan Sulima, Ukrainian : Іван Михайлович Сулима – Ivan Mykhaylovych Sulyma) was a Senior of Registered Cossacks in 1628–29 and a Kosh Otaman in 1630–35. CONTENTS * 1 Life and death * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links LIFE AND DEATHSon of Mykhailo Sulyma, Ivan came from a petty noble (szlachta ) family. He was born in Rohoshchi (next to Chernihiv ). He served as an estate overseer for Stanisław Żółkiewski
Stanisław Żółkiewski
and later the family of Daniłowicze who inherited his lands; for that service in 1620 he was awarded three villages: Sulimówka , Kuczakiw (today Kirove) and Lebedyn . All the villages today belong to the Boryspil Raion
Boryspil Raion
, Kiev Region . His sons included Stepan (died 1659), a captain of Boryspil company, and Fedir (died 1691), a colonel of Pereiaslav
Pereiaslav
regiment
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Stravinsky
IGOR FYODOROVICH STRAVINSKY (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; Russian : И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский, tr. Igorʹ Fëdorovič Stravinskij; IPA: ; 17 June 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century . Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev
Serge Diaghilev
and first performed in Paris by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
: The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911) and the Rite of Spring (1913)
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