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Fustanella
Fustanella
Fustanella
(for spelling in various languages, see chart below) is a traditional pleated skirt-like garment that is also referred to as a kilt worn by men of many nations in the Balkans
Balkans
(Southeast Europe). In modern times, the fustanella is part of Balkan folk dresses. In Greece, a short version of the fustanella is worn by ceremonial military units like the Evzones, while in Albania
Albania
it was worn by the Royal Guard in the interbellum era. Both Greece
Greece
and Albania
Albania
claim the fustanella as a national costume.[1]Contents1 Origins 2 Evolution2.1 Greece 2.2 Albania 2.3 Republic of Macedonia3 Status and practicality 4 Name4.1 Name in various languages5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References7.1 Citations 7.2 Sources8 External linksOrigins[edit]A young man with a chiton
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Souliotes
The Souliotes
Souliotes
were an Orthodox Christian community of the area of Souli, in Epirus, known for their military prowess, their resistance to the local Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha, and their contribution to the Greek cause in the Greek War of Independence, under leaders such as Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
and Kitsos Tzavelas. The Souliotes
Souliotes
established an autonomous confederacy dominating a large number of neighbouring villages in the remote mountainous areas of Epirus, where they could successfully resist Ottoman rule
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Akritai
The Akritai (Greek: ἀκρίται, singular: Akritēs, ἀκρίτης) is a term used in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the 9th–11th centuries to denote the army units guarding the Empire's eastern border, facing the Muslim states of the Middle East. Their exploits, embellished, inspired the Byzantine "national epic" of Digenes Akritas
Digenes Akritas
and the cycle of the Acritic songs. The term is derived from the Greek word akron/akra, meaning border; similar border guards, the limitanei, were employed in the late Roman and early Byzantine armies to guard the frontiers (limes). In official Byzantine use, the term is non-technical, and used in a descriptive manner, being generally applied to the defenders as well as the inhabitants of the eastern frontier zone, including their Muslim counterparts
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Akrites
The Akritai (Greek: ἀκρίται, singular: Akritēs, ἀκρίτης) is a term used in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the 9th–11th centuries to denote the army units guarding the Empire's eastern border, facing the Muslim states of the Middle East. Their exploits, embellished, inspired the Byzantine "national epic" of Digenes Akritas
Digenes Akritas
and the cycle of the Acritic songs. The term is derived from the Greek word akron/akra, meaning border; similar border guards, the limitanei, were employed in the late Roman and early Byzantine armies to guard the frontiers (limes). In official Byzantine use, the term is non-technical, and used in a descriptive manner, being generally applied to the defenders as well as the inhabitants of the eastern frontier zone, including their Muslim counterparts
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Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos
Komnenos
(or Comnenus; Greek: Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. His reign saw the last flowering of the Komnenian restoration, during which the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had seen a resurgence of its military and economic power, and had enjoyed a cultural revival. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent West. He invaded the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, although unsuccessfully, being the last Eastern Roman Emperor to attempt reconquests in the western Mediterranean
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Pottery Sherds
In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd,[1] is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.[citation needed] Occasionally, a piece of broken pottery may be referred to as a shard. While the spelling shard is generally reserved for referring to fragments of glass vessels, the term does not exclude pottery fragments. The etymology is connected with the idea of breakage, from Old English sceard, related to Old Norse skarth, "notch", and Middle High German scharte, "notch".[citation needed] A sherd or potsherd that has been used by having writing painted or inscribed on it can be more precisely referred to as an ostracon. The analysis of sherds is widely used by archaeologists to date sites and develop chronologies, due to their diagnostic characteristics and high resistance to natural, destructive processes
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Warrior
A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.Contents1 History 2 Women as warriors 3 Warrior
Warrior
communities 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksHistory[edit] Warriors seem to have been present in the earliest pre-state societies. Along with hunting, war was considered to be a definitive male activity. No matter the pretext for combat, it seemed to have been a rite of passage for a boy to become a man. Warriors took upon costumes and equipment that seemed to have a symbolic significance; combat itself would be preceded by ritual or sacrifice. Men of fighting age often lived apart in order to encourage bonding, and would ritualise combat in order to demonstrate individual prowess among one another
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Mace-bearer
A mace-bearer, or macebearer, is a person who carries a mace, either a real weapon or ceremonial.One of the functions of the Viscount in Jersey
Jersey
is to act as mace-bearerContents1 Armed 2 Ceremonial 3 See also 4 SourcesArmed[edit] When the mace was still in actual use as a weapon, it was deemed fit for close-protection, and hence a mace-bearer could be a bodyguard. Thus in French and Dutch, a massier (armed with a masse d'armes 'weapon-mace') could be a member of a formally so-styled guard corps, as in the court of the Dukes of Brabant. In Spain, a macero were originall
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Chain-mail
[1] "Chain mail" redirects here. For other uses, see Chain mail (other). "Maille" redirects here. For other uses, see Maille (other).Riveted mail and plate coat zirah bagtar. Armour
Armour
of this type was introduced into India under the Mughals.Mail or maille (also chain mail(le)[2] or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh
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Charles Du Fresne, Sieur Du Cange
Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange
Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange
or Du Cange (French: [dy kɑ̃ʒ]; December 18, 1610 in Amiens
Amiens
– October 23, 1688 in Paris) was a distinguished philologist and historian of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Byzantium.Contents1 Charles du Fresne 2 Works 3 Notes 4 Further readingCharles du Fresne[edit] Educated by Jesuits, du Cange studied law and practiced for several years before assuming the office of Treasurer of France. Du Cange was a busy, energetic man who pursued historical scholarship alongside his demanding official duties and his role as head of a large family. Du Cange's most important work is his Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis (Glossary of medieval and late Latin, Paris, 1678)
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Pope Urban V
Pope
Pope
Urban V (Latin: Urbanus V; 1310 – 19 December 1370), born Guillaume de Grimoard,[1] was Pope
Pope
from 28 September 1362 to his death in 1370 and was also a member of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was the sixth Avignon
Avignon
Pope, and the only Avignon
Avignon
pope to be beatified. Even after his election as pontiff, he continued to follow the Benedictine
Benedictine
Rule, living simply and modestly. His habits did not always gain him supporters who were used to lives of affluence. Urban V pressed for reform throughout his pontificate and also oversaw the restoration and construction of churches and monasteries
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Corinth
Corinth
Corinth
(/ˈkɒrɪnθ/; Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, pronounced [ˈkorinθos] ( listen)) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece
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Archaeological Record
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology,[1] the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record.[2] Archaeological theory
Archaeological theory
is used to interpret the archaeological record for a better understanding of human cultures. The archaeological record can consist of the earliest ancient findings as well as contemporary artifacts. Human activity has had a large impact on the archaeological record. Destructive human processes, such as agriculture and land development, may damage or destroy potential archaeological sites.[3] Other threats to the archaeological record include natural phenomena and scavenging. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be a destructive science for the finite resources of the archaeological record are lost to excavation
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Byzantine Art
Byzantine art
Byzantine art
is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire. Though the empire itself emerged from Rome's decline and lasted until the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453,[1] many Eastern Orthodox states in Eastern Europe, as well as to some degree the Muslim states of the eastern Mediterranean, preserved many aspects of the empire's culture and art for centuries afterward. A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
were culturally influenced by it, without actually being part of it (the "Byzantine commonwealth")
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language
Greek language
between the end of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek
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