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Full Custom
FULL-CUSTOM design is a methodology for designing integrated circuits by specifying the layout of each individual transistor and the interconnections between them. Alternatives to full-custom design include various forms of semi-custom design, such as the repetition of small transistor subcircuits; one such methodology is the use of standard cell libraries (standard cell libraries are themselves designed using full-custom design techniques). Full-custom design potentially maximizes the performance of the chip, and minimizes its area, but is extremely labor-intensive to implement. Full-custom design is limited to ICs that are to be fabricated in extremely high volumes, notably certain microprocessors and a small number of ASICs . The main factor affecting the design and production of ASICs is the high cost of mask sets and the requisite EDA design tools. The mask sets are required in order to transfer the ASIC designs onto the wafer . REFERENCES * ^ Rajneesh kaswan (1999). The VLSI handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-8593-8 . Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Full_custom additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Integrated Circuit
An INTEGRATED CIRCUIT or MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (also referred to as an IC, a CHIP, or a MICROCHIP) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material , normally silicon . The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components . The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics . Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances and are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. ICs were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes , and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication . Since their origins in the 1960s, the size, speed, and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that allow more and more transistors on chips of the same size - a modern chip may have several billion transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail
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Transistor
A TRANSISTOR is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices , and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time. The first practically implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen , Walter Brattain , and William Shockley . The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios , calculators , and computers , among other things. The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement
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Library (electronics)
In semiconductor design, STANDARD CELL methodology is a method of designing application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with mostly digital-logic features. Standard cell
Standard cell
methodology is an example of design abstraction, whereby a low-level very-large-scale integration ( VLSI
VLSI
) layout is encapsulated into an abstract logic representation (such as a N AND gate ). Cell-based methodology — the general class to which standard cells belong — makes it possible for one designer to focus on the high-level (logical function) aspect of digital design, while another designer focuses on the implementation (physical) aspect. Along with semiconductor manufacturing advances, standard cell methodology has helped designers scale ASICs from comparatively simple single-function ICs (of several thousand gates), to complex multi-million gate system-on-a-chip (SoC) devices. CONTENTS * 1 Construction of a standard cell * 2 Library * 3 Application of standard cell * 3.1 Synthesis * 3.2 Placement * 4 Routing * 4.1 DRC/LVS * 5 Other cell-based methodologies * 6 Complexity measure * 7 See also * 8 External links CONSTRUCTION OF A STANDARD CELLA standard cell is a group of transistor and interconnect structures that provides a boolean logic function (e.g., AND , OR , XOR , XNOR
XNOR
, inverters) or a storage function (flipflop or latch)
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Microprocessor
A MICROPROCESSOR is a computer processor which incorporates the functions of a computer 's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC) , or at most a few integrated circuits. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory , and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic . Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system . The integration of a whole CPUonto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power, increasing efficiency. Integrated circuitprocessors are produced in large numbers by highly automated processes resulting in a low per unit cost. Single-chip processors increase reliability as there are many fewer electrical connections to fail. As microprocessor designs get better, the cost of manufacturing a chip (with smaller components built on a semiconductor chip the same size) generally stays the same
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Application-specific Integrated Circuit
An APPLICATION-SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/ , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 or the 4000 series . As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors , memory blocks including ROM , RAM , EEPROM , flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip ). Designers of digital ASICs often use a hardware description language (HDL), such as Verilog or VHDL , to describe the functionality of ASICs. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are the modern-day technology for building a breadboard or prototype from standard parts; programmable logic blocks and programmable interconnects allow the same FPGA to be used in many different applications. For smaller designs or lower production volumes, FPGAs may be more cost effective than an ASIC design even in production
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Mask Set
A MASK SET or a PHOTOMASK SET is a series of electronic data that define geometry for the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Each of the physical masks generated from this data is called a photomask . A mask set for a modern process typically contains as many as twenty or more masks, each of which defines a specific photolithographic step in the semiconductor fabrication process. Examples of masks include: * p-well * n-well * active * poly * p-select * n-select * contact * metal1, 2, 3...For more information, see photolithography and semiconductor manufacturing . REFERENCES* Saint, Christopher and Judy. (2002). IC Layout Basics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138625-4 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mask_set additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Electronic Design Automation
ELECTRONIC DESIGN AUTOMATION (EDA), also referred to as ELECTRONIC COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ECAD), is a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as integrated circuits and printed circuit boards . The tools work together in a design flow that chip designers use to design and analyze entire semiconductor chips. Since a modern semiconductor chip can have billions of components, EDA tools are essential for their design. This article describes EDA specifically with respect to integrated circuits . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early days * 1.2 Birth of commercial EDA * 2 Current status * 3 Software focuses * 3.1 Design * 3.2 Simulation * 3.3 Analysis and verification * 3.4 Manufacturing preparation * 3.5 Functional Safety * 4 Companies * 4.1 Old companies * 4.2 Acquisitions * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYEARLY DAYSBefore EDA, integrated circuits were designed by hand, and manually laid out. Some advanced shops used geometric software to generate the tapes for the Gerber photoplotter , but even those copied digital recordings of mechanically drawn components. The process was fundamentally graphic, with the translation from electronics to graphics done manually. The best known company from this era was Calma , whose GDSII format survives. By the mid-1970s, developers started to automate the design along with the drafting
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Wafer (electronics)
A WAFER, also called a SLICE or SUBSTRATE , is a thin slice of semiconductor material , such as a crystalline silicon , used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells . The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation , etching , deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing ) and packaged . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Formation * 3 Cleaning, texturing and etching * 4 Wafer properties * 4.1 Standard wafer sizes * 4.1.1 Historical increases of wafer size * 4.1.2 Proposed 450 mm transition * 4.2 Analytical die count estimation * 4.3 Crystalline orientation * 4.4 Crystallographic orientation notches * 4.5 Impurity doping * 5 Compound semiconductors * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2015)By 1960, silicon wafers were being manufactured in the U.S. by companies such as MEMC / SunEdison . In 1965, American engineers Eric O. Ernst, Donald J. Hurd, and Gerard Seeley, while working under IBM , filed Patent US3423629A for the first high-capacity epitaxial apparatus
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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Full Custom
FULL-CUSTOM design is a methodology for designing integrated circuits by specifying the layout of each individual transistor and the interconnections between them. Alternatives to full-custom design include various forms of semi-custom design, such as the repetition of small transistor subcircuits; one such methodology is the use of standard cell libraries (standard cell libraries are themselves designed using full-custom design techniques). Full-custom design potentially maximizes the performance of the chip, and minimizes its area, but is extremely labor-intensive to implement. Full-custom design is limited to ICs that are to be fabricated in extremely high volumes, notably certain microprocessors and a small number of ASICs . The main factor affecting the design and production of ASICs is the high cost of mask sets and the requisite EDA design tools. The mask sets are required in order to transfer the ASIC designs onto the wafer . REFERENCES * ^ Rajneesh kaswan (1999). The VLSI handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-8593-8 . Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Full_custom additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Tropical Storm Dean, the final storm of the season, attained peak winds of 65 mph (105 km/h), and made landfall on the Delmarva Peninsula
Delmarva Peninsula
on September 29. (FULL ARTICLE... ) Recently featured: * 2012 Tour de France
2012 Tour de France
* Murder of Dwayne Jones * Audioslave * ARCHIVE * BY EMAIL * MORE FEATURED ARTICLES... DID YOU KNOW... _ Tjele helmet fragment
Tjele helmet fragment
* ..
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction<