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Fulani
The Fula people
Fula people
or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fula: Fulɓe; French: Peul; Hausa: Fulani or Hilani; Portuguese: Fula; Wolof: Pël; Bambara: Fulaw), numbering between 20 and 25 million people in total,[10] are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel
Sahel
and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.[11] The Fula people
Fula people
are traditionally believed to have roots stemming from North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East, who later intermingled with local West African ethnic groups
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Ivory Coast
Coordinates: 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5 Republic
Republic
of Côte d'Ivoire République de Côte d'Ivoire (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Union – Discipline – Travail" (French) "Unity – Discipline – Work"Anthem: L'Abidjanaise Song of AbidjanLocation of  Ivory Coast  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)Capital
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Pastoralism
Pastoralism
Pastoralism
is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep. "Pastoralism" generally has a mobile aspect; moving the herds in search of fresh pasture and water (in contrast to pastoral farming, in which non-nomadic farmers grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock). Pastoralism
Pastoralism
is similar to nomadic movement because all of them go to places season to productive land, and adapts well to the environment. For example, in savannas, pastoralists and their animals gather when rain water is abundant and the pasture is rich, then scatter during the drying of the savanna.[1] Pastoralists often use their herds to affect their environment. Grazing herds on savannas can ensure the biodiversity of the savannas and prevent them from evolving into scrubland
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Kanuri People
The Kanuri people
Kanuri people
(Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa, Bare Bari and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Cameroon. Those generally termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom feel themselves distinct from the Kanuri. Most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, its client states or provinces
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Anglicised
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.[1][2] It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning
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Wolof Language
Wolof (/ˈwoʊlɒf/) is a language of Senegal, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people. Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula, it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family. Unlike most other languages of the Niger-Congo family, Wolof is not a tonal language. Wolof originated as the language of the Lebu people.[3][4] It is the most widely spoken language in Senegal, spoken natively by the Wolof people (40% of the population) but also by most other Senegalese as a second language.[citation needed] Wolof dialects vary geographically and between rural and urban areas. "Dakar-Wolof", for instance, is an urban mixture of Wolof, French, and Arabic. "Wolof" is the standard spelling and may refer to the Wolof people
Wolof people
or to Wolof culture
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Bambara Language
The Bambara (Bamana) language, Bamanankan, is a lingua franca and national language of Mali
Mali
spoken by perhaps 15 million people, natively by 5 million Bambara people
Bambara people
and about 10 million second-language users. It is estimated that about 80 percent of the population of Mali
Mali
speak Bambara as a first or second language
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Manding Languages
The Manding languages
Manding languages
(sometimes spelt Manden[2][3]) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa
West Africa
of the Mande family. Their best-known members are Bambara, the most widely spoken language in Mali; Mandinka, the main language of Gambia; Maninka or Malinké, a major language of Guinea; and Dyula, a trade language of the northern Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
and western Burkina Faso.Contents1 Subdivisions 2 Writing 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesSubdivisions[edit] The Manding languages, and what distinguishes one from the rest and relationships among all of them are matters that continue to be researched
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Middle East
The Middle East
Middle East
is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation while Bahrain
Bahrain
is the smallest. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner
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Central Africa
Central Africa
Africa
is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, universal religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Arabic: Allah), and that
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Red Sea
The Red Sea
Red Sea
(also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb
Bab el Mandeb
strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
(leading to the Suez
Suez
Canal). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2),[1][2] is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide
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Americas
The Americas
Americas
(also collectively called America; French: Amérique, Dutch: Amerika, Spanish and Portuguese: América) comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.[5][6][7] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas
Americas
is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes
Great Lakes
basin, Mississippi, and La Plata
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Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa
Africa
to the Americas, and then their sale there. The slave trade used mainly the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were Africans from central and western Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas.[1] The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies especially were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe
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Bilali Muhammad
The Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic manuscript on West African Islamic law. It was written in the 19th century by Bilali Mohammet, an enslaved West African held on Sapelo Island
Sapelo Island
of Georgia. The document is held at the Hargrett Rare Book & Manuscript Library at the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
as part of the Francis Goulding papers (it is referred to as "Ben Ali Materials.")Contents1 History 2 Synopsis 3 Errors in prior research 4 Legacy 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] Bilali Mohammed was an enslaved West African on a plantation on Sapelo Island, Georgia. According to his descendant, Cornelia Bailey, in her history, God, Dr. Buzzard and The Bolito Man, Bilali was from the area of present-day Sierra Leone
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