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Frozen Orbit
In orbital mechanics , a FROZEN ORBIT is an orbit for an artificial satellite in which natural drifting due to the central body 's shape has been minimized by careful selection of the orbital parameters . Typically this is an orbit where, over a long period of time, the altitude remains constant at the same point in each orbit — changes in the inclination , position of the lowest point of the orbit , and eccentricity have been minimized by choosing initial values so that their perturbations cancel out. This results in a long-term stable orbit that minimizes the use of station-keeping propellant
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European Remote-Sensing Satellite
EUROPEAN REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE (ERS) was the European Space Agency 's first Earth-observing satellite programme using a polar orbit. The first satellite was launched on 17 July 1991 into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 782–785 km. CONTENTS* 1 ERS-1 * 1.1 Instruments * 1.2 Mission * 2 ERS-2 * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links ERS-1INSTRUMENTSERS-1 carried an array of earth-observation instruments that gathered information about the Earth (land, water, ice and atmosphere) using a variety of measurement principles
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Envisat
ENVISAT ("ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE") is a large inactive Earth-observing satellite which is still in orbit. Operated by the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA), it was the world's largest civilian Earth observation satellite. It was launched on 1 March 2002 aboard an Ariane 5 from the Guyana Space Centre in Kourou , French Guiana
French Guiana
, into a Sun synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 790 km (490 mi) (± 10 km or 6.2 mi). It orbits the Earth
Earth
in about 101 minutes, with a repeat cycle of 35 days. After losing contact with the satellite on 8 April 2012, ESA
ESA
formally announced the end of Envisat's mission on 9 May 2012. Envisat
Envisat
cost €2.3 billion (including €300 million for 5 years of operations) to develop and launch. The mission is due to be replaced by the Sentinel series of satellites
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Orbital Mechanics
ORBITAL MECHANICS or ASTRODYNAMICS is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft . The motion of these objects is usually calculated from Newton\'s laws of motion and Newton\'s law of universal gravitation . It is a core discipline within space mission design and control. Celestial mechanics treats more broadly the orbital dynamics of systems under the influence of gravity , including both spacecraft and natural astronomical bodies such as star systems, planets , moons and comets . Orbital mechanics focuses on spacecraft trajectories , including orbital maneuvers , orbit plane changes, and interplanetary transfers, and is used by mission planners to predict the results of propulsive maneuvers
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Eccentricity Vector
In celestial mechanics , the ECCENTRICITY VECTOR of a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is the dimensionless vector with direction pointing from apoapsis to periapsis and with magnitude equal to the orbit's scalar eccentricity . For Kepler orbits the ECCENTRICITY VECTOR is a constant of motion. Its main use is in the analysis of almost circular orbits, as perturbing (non-Keplerian) forces on an actual orbit will cause the osculating eccentricity vector to change continuously. For the eccentricity and argument of periapsis parameters, eccentricity zero (circular orbit) corresponds to a singularity
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Orbital Node
An ORBITAL NODE is one of the two points where an orbit crosses a plane of reference to which it is inclined. An orbit that is contained in the plane of reference (called non-inclined ) has no nodes. CONTENTS * 1 Planes of reference * 2 Node distinction * 3 Symbols and nomenclature * 4 Lunar nodes * 5 See also * 6 References PLANES OF REFERENCECommon planes of reference include: * For a geocentric orbit , the Earth
Earth
's equatorial plane . In this case, non-inclined orbits are called equatorial. * For a heliocentric orbit , the ecliptic plane. In this case, non-inclined orbits are called ecliptic. * For an orbit outside the Solar System
Solar System
, the plane through the primary perpendicular to a line through the observer and the primary (called the plane of the sky ). , chap. 17.NODE DISTINCTION Animation about nodes of two elliptic trajectories
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Kepler Orbit
In celestial mechanics , a KEPLER ORBIT (or KEPLERIAN ORBIT) is the motion of one body relative to another, as an ellipse , parabola , or hyperbola , which forms a two-dimensional orbital plane in three-dimensional space. (A Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
can also form a straight line .) It considers only the point-like gravitational attraction of two bodies, neglecting perturbations due to gravitational interactions with other objects, atmospheric drag , solar radiation pressure , a non-spherical central body, and so on. It is thus said to be a solution of a special case of the two-body problem , known as the Kepler problem . As a theory in classical mechanics , it also does not take into account the effects of general relativity . Keplerian orbits can be parametrized into six orbital elements in various ways. In most applications, there is a large central body, the center of mass of which is assumed to be the center of mass of the entire system
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Figure Of The Earth
The expression FIGURE OF THE EARTH has various meanings in geodesy according to the way it is used and the precision with which the Earth 's size and shape is to be defined. While the sphere is a close approximation of the true figure of the Earth
Earth
and satisfactory for many purposes, geodesists have developed several models that more closely approximate the shape of the Earth
Earth
so that coordinate systems can serve the precise needs of navigation , surveying , cadastre , land use , and various other concerns
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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

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Dirk Brouwer
DIRK BROUWER (September 1, 1902, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
– January 31, 1966, New Haven ) was a Dutch -American astronomer . He received his Ph.D. in 1927 at Leiden University under Willem de Sitter and then went to Yale University . From 1941 until 1966 he was editor of the Astronomical Journal . He specialized in celestial mechanics and together with Gerald Clemence wrote the textbook Methods of Celestial Mechanics
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Reference Ellipsoid
In geodesy , a REFERENCE ELLIPSOID is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid , the truer figure of the Earth
Earth
, or other planetary body. Because of their relative simplicity, reference ellipsoids are used as a preferred surface on which geodetic network computations are performed and point coordinates such as latitude , longitude , and elevation are defined. CONTENTS * 1 Ellipsoid
Ellipsoid
parameters * 2 Coordinates * 3 Historical Earth
Earth
ellipsoids * 4 Ellipsoids for other planetary bodies * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ELLIPSOID PARAMETERSIn 1687 Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
published the Principia in which he included a proof that a rotating self-gravitating fluid body in equilibrium takes the form of an oblate ellipsoid of revolution which he termed an oblate spheroid
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Geostationary Orbit
A GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT, GEOSTATIONARY EARTH ORBIT or GEOSYNCHRONOUS EQUATORIAL ORBIT (GEO) is a circular orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation. An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth's rotational period (one sidereal day ) and thus appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers. Communications satellites and weather satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas (located on Earth ) that communicate with them do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located. Using this characteristic, ocean color satellites with visible and near-infrared light sensors (e.g. the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)) can also be operated in geostationary orbit in order to monitor sensitive changes of ocean environments
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