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Front Engine
In automotive design , an FWD, or FRONT-ENGINE, FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUT places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. CONTENTS * 1 Usage implications * 2 Historical arrangements * 2.1 Mid-engine / Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
* 2.2 Longitudinally mounted front-engine and front-wheel drive * 2.3 Front-engine transversely mounted / Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
* 2.3.1 Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
design characteristics * 2.3.2 Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
shafts * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading USAGE IMPLICATIONS Further information: Automobile layout
Automobile layout
and Front-wheel-drive
Front-wheel-drive
Front-engine position Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line
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Jean-Albert Grégoire
JEAN-ALBERT GRéGOIRE (7 July 1899 in Paris
Paris
– 19 August 1992) was one of the great pioneers of the front-wheel-drive car. He contributed to the development of front-wheel-drive vehicles in two ways. The first way was in developing and promoting the Tracta joint (designed by his friend Pierre Fenaille), which was, until manufacturing techniques had progressed sufficiently to allow the successful manufacture of the constant velocity joints commonly in use today, the preferred choice of most manufactures of vehicles that had driven front wheels. Tracta joints were used by many of the pioneers of front-wheel drive, including DKW
DKW
between 1929 and 1936 and Adler from 1932 to 1939 as well as the cars designed by J A Grégoire that will be mentioned later
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Renault 5
The RENAULT 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault
Renault
. It was produced in two generations 1972–1985 (also called R5) and 1984–1996 (also called Super 5 or Supercinq). The R5 was sold in the US as Le Car, from 1976 to 1983. Nearly 5.5 million were built. The Renault
Renault
7 is the four door sedan version of the Renault
Renault
5 . The Renault
Renault
5 achieved, like the original Mini
Mini
, a cult status
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Ford Taunus
The FORD TAUNUS is a family car that was sold by Ford Germany throughout Europe. Models from 1970 onward were similar to the Ford Cortina in the United Kingdom. The model line was named after the Taunus
Taunus
mountain range in Germany and was first made in 1939 and continued through several versions until 1994
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Lancia Flavia
The LANCIA FLAVIA (Tipo 815/819/820) is an executive car produced by Lancia
Lancia
in Italy from 1961 to 1971. Production continued as the Lancia 2000 from 1971 to 1975. The Flavia was launched with a 1500 cc engine at the 1960 Turin Motor Show by Lancia
Lancia
and introduced in major European markets during the next twelve months. Coupe and convertible versions developed by Pininfarina
Pininfarina
and Vignale quickly followed, together with one or two low volume 'specials' including a Zagato
Zagato
coupe. Performance improved over the next ten years as the engine size increased, progressively, to 2000 cc. The car remained in production until 1970 when it was updated and renamed as the Lancia
Lancia
2000 . Flavia was named after Via Flavia , Roman road
Roman road
leading from Trieste
Trieste
(Tergeste) to Dalmatia
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Lancia Fulvia
The LANCIA FULVIA (Tipo 818) is an automobile produced by Lancia between 1963 and 1976. Named after Via Fulvia, the Roman road
Roman road
leading from Tortona to Torino, it was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show
Geneva Motor Show
in 1963 and manufactured in three variants: Berlina 4-door saloon , 2-door Coupé
Coupé
, and Sport, an alternative fastback coupé designed and built by Zagato
Zagato
on the Coupé
Coupé
floorpan. Fulvias are notable for their role in motorsport history, including winning the International Rally Championship in 1972. On testing a Fulvia in 1967, Road & Track
Road & Track
summed it up as "a precision motorcar, an engineering tour de force"
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Renault 4
The RENAULT 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault
Renault
between 1961 and 1992. It was the first front-wheel drive family car produced by Renault. The car was launched at a time when several decades of economic stagnation were giving way to growing prosperity and surging car ownership in France. The first million cars were produced by 1 February 1966, less than four and a half years after launch; eventually over eight million were built, making the Renault
Renault
4 a commercial success because of the timing of its introduction and the merits of its design. It was exceptionally spacious for its size, and although originally marketed as a small estate car, it is now regarded as the first mass production hatchback car
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Renault
Coordinates : 48°49′53″N 2°13′42″E / 48.831455°N 2.228273°E / 48.831455; 2.228273 Renault
Renault
S.A * Drive the change (corporate) * Passion for life ( Renault
Renault
marque)
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Mini (marque)
MINI (stylised as MINI) is an English automotive marque specialised in small cars , founded in 1969, subsidiary of BMW
BMW
since 1994. The original Mini
Mini
was a line of iconic British small cars manufactured by the British Motor Corporation , and its successors, from 1959 until 2000. Their models included the Morris Mini-Minor and the Austin Seven, the Countryman , Moke , 1275GT and Clubman . Performance versions of these models used the name Cooper , due to a partnership with racing legend John Cooper . The original two-door Mini
Mini
continued in production until 2000. Development of a successor began in 1995 and the new generation car was launched in 2001. The current Mini
Mini
range includes the Hardtop/Hatch/Convertible (three-door hatchback), Clubman (estate ), Countryman (five-door crossover ), Coupe/Roadster and Paceman (three-door crossover based on the Countryman)
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Mid-engine, Front-wheel-drive Layout
In automotive design , a FRONT MID-ENGINE , FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUT (sometimes called FMF or just MF) is one in which the front road wheels are driven by an internal-combustion engine placed just behind them, in front of the passenger compartment. In contrast to the Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
(FF), the center of mass of the engine is behind the front axle. This layout is typically chosen for its better weight distribution (the heaviest component is near the center of the car, lowering its moment of inertia ). Since the differences between the FF and MF layouts are minor, most people consider the MF layout to be the same as the FF layout. However, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making the resulting vehicle rather long. This may be why no manufacturer currently offers the MF layout
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Citroën Traction Avant
The CITROëN TRACTION AVANT (French pronunciation: ​ ) is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën
Citroën
from 1934 to 1957. About 760,000 units were produced. This Traction Avant pioneered mass production of three revolutionary features still in use today: a unitary body with no separate frame , four-wheel independent suspension , and front-wheel drive
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Unibody
A VEHICLE FRAME is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism . Until the 1930s, virtually every car had a structural frame, separate from its body. This construction design is known as body-on-frame . Over time, nearly all passenger cars have migrated to unibody construction , meaning their chassis and bodywork have been integrated into one another. Nearly all trucks , buses, and most pickups continue to use a separate frame as their chassis
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Toyota
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION (Japanese : トヨタ自動車株式会社, Hepburn : _ Toyota Jidōsha KK _, IPA: , English: /tɔɪˈoʊtə/ ) is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi , Japan. In March 2014, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 338,875 employees worldwide and, as of October 2016 , was the ninth-largest company in the world by revenue . As of 2016, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer behind German Volkswagen Group . Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it also reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014 , Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization (worth more than twice as much as #2-ranked SoftBank ) and by revenue
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Toyota Tercel
The TOYOTA TERCEL is a subcompact manufactured by Toyota
Toyota
from 1978 to 1999 across five generations, in five body configurations sized between the Corolla and the Starlet . Manufactured at the Takaoka plant in Toyota
Toyota
City , Japan, and sharing its platform with the Cynos (a.k.a. Paseo ) and the Starlet, the Tercel was marketed variously as the TOYOTA COROLLA II—sold at Toyota
Toyota
Japanese dealerships called Toyota
Toyota
Corolla Store s—and was replaced by the Toyota
Toyota
Platz in 1999. It was also known as the TOYOTA CORSA and sold at Toyopet Store locations. Starting with the second generation, the Tercel dealership network was changed to Toyota
Toyota
Vista Stores, as its badge engineered sibling, the Corolla II, was exclusive to Toyota
Toyota
Corolla Store locations
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Auto Union
AUTO UNION AG, Chemnitz
Chemnitz
, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony
Saxony
, during the Great Depression . It is the immediate predecessor of AUDI as it is known today. As well as acting as an umbrella firm for its four constituent brands ( Audi
Audi
, Horch
Horch
, DKW
DKW
, Wanderer ), Auto Union
Auto Union
is widely known for its racing team ( Auto Union
Auto Union
Rennabteilung, based at Horch
Horch
works in Zwickau / Saxony
Saxony
)
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Audi
AUDI (pronounced ( listen )) is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles . Audi
Audi
is a member of the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
and has its roots at Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
, Bavaria , Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide. The origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises ( Horch
Horch
and the _Audiwerke_) founded by engineer August Horch ; and two other manufacturers (DKW and Wanderer ), leading to the foundation of Auto Union in 1932. The modern era of Audi
Audi
essentially began in the 1960s when