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Front Engine
In automotive design , an FWD, or FRONT-ENGINE, FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUT places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. CONTENTS * 1 Usage implications * 2 Historical arrangements * 2.1 Mid-engine / Front-wheel drive * 2.2 Longitudinally mounted front-engine and front-wheel drive * 2.3 Front-engine transversely mounted / Front-wheel drive * 2.3.1 Front-wheel drive design characteristics * 2.3.2 Front-wheel drive shafts * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading USAGE IMPLICATIONS Further information: Automobile layout and Front-wheel-drive
Front-wheel-drive
Front-engine position Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line. In recent times, the manufactures of some cars have added to the designation with the term front-mid which describes a car where the engine is in front of the passenger compartment but behind the front axle. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation, or on the front axle . This layout is the most traditional form, and remains a popular, practical design
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Transverse Engine
A TRANSVERSE ENGINE is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the long axis of the vehicle. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration. (Most rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine configuration, where the engine's crankshaft axis is parallel to the long axis of the vehicle, except for some rear-mid engine vehicles, which use a transverse engine and transaxle mounted in the rear instead of the front.) CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Position placement of transverse engines * 3 Common types of transversely placed engines * 4 Alternative convention with twin-cylinder motorcycles * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 See also HISTORY Transversely mounted engine in Mini Cooper The Critchley light car , made by the Daimler Motor Company in 1899, had a transverse engine with belt drive to the rear axle. A 1911 front-wheel drive car had a transverse engine with a clutch at each end, driving the front wheels directly. The first successful transverse-engine cars were the two-cylinder DKW "Front" series of cars, which first appeared in 1931. After the Second World War , SAAB used the configuration in their first model, the Saab 92 , in 1947. The arrangement was also used for Borgward 's Goliath and Hansa brand cars and in a few other German cars
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Longitudinal Engine
In automotive engineering , a LONGITUDINAL ENGINE is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle , front to back. This type of motor is usually used for rear-wheel drive cars, except for some Audi and SAAB models equipped with longitudinal engines in front wheel drive. In front-wheel drive cars a transverse engine is usually used. Trucks often have longitudinal engines with rear-wheel drive. For motorcycles, the use of a particular type depends on the drive: in case of a chain or belt drive a transverse engine is usually used, and with shaft drives a longitudinal engine. Longitudinal engines in motorcycles do have one disadvantage: the "tipping point" of the crankshaft tilts along the entire motorcycle to a greater or lesser degree when accelerating. This is partly resolved by having other components, such as the generator and the gearbox, rotate in the opposite direction to the crankshaft. Most larger, "premium" vehicles use this engine orientation, both front and rear wheel driven , because powerful engines such as the inline-6 and 90° big-bore V8 are usually too long to fit in a FF transverse engine bay, while most mainstream modern vehicles use front wheel drive along with a transverse engine arrangement
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Automotive Design
AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics , of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but also refers to motorcycles , trucks , buses , coaches , and vans . The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering . Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. CONTENTS* 1 Design elements * 1.1 Exterior design * 1.2 Interior design * 1.3 Color and trim design * 1.4 Graphic design * 1.5 Computer-aided styling and Class-A development * 2 Development process * 2.1 Styling development cycle * 2.2 Development team * 3 Components * 4 History * 4.1 U.S
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Internal Combustion Engine
An INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , rotor or a nozzle . This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy . The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see _Otto engine _). The term _internal combustion engine_ usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine . A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines , jet engines and most rocket engines , each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine
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Automobile Layout
In automotive design , the AUTOMOBILE LAYOUT describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, and the location of each is dependent on the application for which the vehicle will be used. Factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging (location and size of the passenger compartment and boot ), weight distribution , and the vehicle's intended handling characteristics . Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories: front- or rear-wheel drive. Four-wheel-drive vehicles may take on the characteristics of either, depending on how power is distributed to the wheels. CONTENTS* 1 Front-wheel-drive layouts * 1.1 Characteristics * 1.2 Advantages * 1.3 Disadvantages * 2 Rear-wheel-drive layouts * 2.1 Characteristics * 2.2 Advantages * 2.3 Disadvantages * 3 Four-wheel-drive layouts * 3.1 Advantages * 3.2 Disadvantages * 3.3 Unusual 4WD layouts * 4 History and current use * 5 See also * 6 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUTS Main article: front-wheel drive FF layout Front-wheel-drive layouts are those in which the front wheels of the vehicle are driven. The most popular layout used in cars today is the front-engine, front-wheel drive, with the engine in front of the front axle, driving the front wheels
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Front-wheel-drive
FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles , where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine , rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles. CONTENTS * 1 Front-wheel-drive arrangements * 2 History * 2.1 Prior to 1900 * 2.2 Société Parisienne - Victoria Combination * 2.3 1900 – 1920 * 2.4 1920 – 1930 * 2.5 1930 – 1945 * 2.6 1945 – 1960 * 2.7 1960 – 1975 * 2.7.1 Giacosa innovation * 2.8 1975 – 1990 * 2.9 1990 – present * 3 Records * 4 See also * 5 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE ARRANGEMENTSMost FWD layouts are front-engined. Rear-engined layouts are possible, but rare. Historically they fall into three categories: * Front-engine transversely mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front-engine longitudinally mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front Mid-engine/ Front-wheel drive HISTORY _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_PRIOR TO 1900Experiments with front-wheel-drive cars date to the early days of the automobile
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Axle
An AXLE is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear . On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole in the wheel to allow the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle. Sometimes, especially on bicycles , the latter type axle is referred to as a spindle . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Vehicle
Vehicle
axles * 3 Structural features And Design * 4 Drive axle * 5 Dead axle (lazy axle) * 6 Lift axle * 7 Full-floating vs semi-floating * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 External links TERMINOLOGYOn cars and trucks, several senses of the word "axle" occur in casual usage, referring to the shaft itself, its housing, or simply any transverse pair of wheels. Strictly speaking, a shaft which rotates with the wheel, being either bolted or splined in fixed relation to it, is called an "axle" or "axle shaft". However, in looser usage an entire assembly including the surrounding "axle housing" (typically a casting ) is also called an "axle". An even broader (somewhat figurative) sense of the word refers to every pair of parallel wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle, regardless of their mechanical connection to each other and to the vehicle frame or body
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Weight Distribution
WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION is the apportioning of weight within a vehicle , especially cars , airplanes , and trains . Typically, it is written in the form _x_/_y_, where _x_ is the percentage of weight in the front, and _y_ is the percentage in the back. In a vehicle which relies on gravity in some way, weight distribution directly affects a variety of vehicle characteristics, including handling , acceleration , traction , and component life. For this reason weight distribution varies with the vehicle's intended usage. For example, a drag car maximizes traction at the rear axle while countering the reactionary pitch-up torque. It generates this counter-torque by placing a small amount of counterweight at a great distance forward of the rear axle. In the airline industry , load balancing is used to evenly distribute the weight of passengers, cargo, and fuel throughout an aircraft, so as to keep the aircraft's center of gravity close to its center of pressure to avoid losing pitch control. In military transport aircraft, it is common to have a loadmaster as a part of the crew; their responsibilities include calculating accurate load information for center of gravity calculations, and ensuring cargo is properly secured to prevent its shifting
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Car Handling
AUTOMOBILE HANDLING and VEHICLE HANDLING are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road. It is commonly judged by how a vehicle performs particularly during cornering , acceleration, and braking as well as on the vehicle's directional stability when moving in steady state condition. In the automotive industry, handling and braking are the major components of a vehicle's "active" safety, as well as its ability to perform in Auto Racing . The maximum lateral acceleration is sometimes discussed separately as "road holding". (This discussion is directed at road vehicles with at least three wheels, but some of it may apply to other ground vehicles). Automobiles driven on public roads whose engineering requirements emphasize handling over comfort and passenger space are named sports cars
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Front-engine, Rear-wheel-drive Layout
In automotive design , an FR, or FRONT-ENGINE, REAR-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUT is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear . This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout (FF). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout * 2.1 Characteristics * 2.2 Gallery * 3 References HISTORY Hyundai Genesis
Hyundai Genesis
, a modern example of a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout sedan The first FR car was an 1895 Panhard
Panhard
model, so this layout was known as the "Système Panhard" in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the engine output shaft, spreading weight under the vehicle. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft (replacing this with the transaxle of lighter combined weight), but has the disadvantage of concentrating all the weight in one location. In order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts: the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was normally produced with its highest gear being 1:1, which offers some mechanical advantages
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Driveshaft
A DRIVE SHAFT, DRIVESHAFT, DRIVING SHAFT, PROPELLER SHAFT (PROP SHAFT), or CARDAN SHAFT is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress , equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia . To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more universal joints , jaw couplings , or rag joints , and sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Automotive drive shaft * 2.1 Vehicles * 2.1.1 Front-engine, rear-wheel drive * 2.1.2 Front-wheel drive * 2.1.3 Four wheel and all-wheel drive * 2.2 Research and development * 3 Motorcycle drive shafts * 4 Marine drive shafts * 5 Locomotive drive shafts * 6 Drive shafts in bicycles * 6.1 Advantages * 6.2 Disadvantages * 7 Drive shaft production * 8 See also * 9 References HISTORYThe term DRIVE SHAFT first appeared during the mid 19th century
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Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive Layout
In automotive design , an RR, or REAR-ENGINE , REAR-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUT places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the R MR layout , the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 3 History * 4 Present * 5 References OVERVIEWMost of the traits of the RR configuration are shared with the mid-engine rear-wheel-drive, or MR . Placing the engine near the driven rear wheels allows for a physically smaller, lighter, less complex, and more efficient drivetrain, since there is no need for a driveshaft , and the differential can be integrated with the transmission, commonly referred to as a transaxle . The front-engine front-wheel-drive layout also has this advantage. Since the engine is typically the heaviest component of the car, putting it near the rear axle usually results in more weight over the rear axle than the front, commonly referred to as a rear weight bias. The farther back the engine, the greater the bias. Typical weight bias for an FR (front engine, rear drive), is 55/45 front/rear; for MR, 45/55; for RR, 35/65. A static rear weight requires less forward brake bias, as load is more evenly distributed among all four wheels under braking. Similarly, a rear weight bias means that the driven wheels have increased traction when accelerating, allowing them to put more power on the ground and accelerate faster
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