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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Francophonie
 _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ Map of the Francophone world showing the different statuses of French on each continent FRANCOPHONIE, sometimes also spelt FRANCOPHONIA in English , is the quality of speaking French . It is not to be confused with the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie , sometimes also informally called "la Francophonie". The term designates the ensemble of people, organisations and governments that share the use of French on a daily basis or/and as administrative language, teaching language or chosen language. DENOMINATIONSFRANCOPHONIE, FRANCOPHONIE and FRANCOPHONE SPACE are syntagmatic expressions that are sometimes misunderstood or misused
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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First Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term _native language_ or _mother tongue_ refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a _second language _ is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism * 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary in North Carolina
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Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Italic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Romance Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Western Romance Languages
WESTERN ROMANCE LANGUAGES are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line . They include the Gallo-Romance and Iberian-Romance branches as well as northern Italian. The subdivision is based solely on the use of the "s" for pluralization and the weakening of some consonants, but that makes the categorization highly problematic because there is much higher lexical similarity between all dialects of Italian and French than between French and Spanish. There is also much higher morphological similarity between Spanish and Italian dialects than between Italian and French. Based on mutual intelligibility , Dalby counts a dozen languages: Portuguese , Spanish , Asturian-Leonese , Aragonese , Catalan , Gascon , Provençal , Gallo-Wallon , French , Franco-Provençal , Romansh , and Ladin
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Gallo-Romance Languages
The GALLO-ROMANCE branch of the Romance languages includes _sensu stricto _ the Oïl languages (French and its closest relatives such as Walloon ) and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan). However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Occitano-Romance , Gallo- Italic languages , and Rhaeto-Romance . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Traditional geographical extension * 3 General characteristics * 4 References CLASSIFICATION _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (January 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ _ This article POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH
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Langues D'oïl
The LANGUES D\'OïL (/ˈwiːl/ French : ), or OïL LANGUAGES (also in French: langues d'oui ), is a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives spoken today in the northern half of France
France
, southern Belgium
Belgium
, and the Channel Islands . They belong to the larger Gallo- Romance languages
Romance languages
, which also cover most of east-central ( Arpitania
Arpitania
) and southern France ( Occitania
Occitania
), northern Italy
Italy
, and eastern Spain
Spain

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Old French
OLD FRENCH (_franceis_, _françois_, _romanz_; Modern French _ancien français_) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the _langue d\'oïl _, contrasting with the _langue d\'oc _ or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance , specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region
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Middle French
MIDDLE FRENCH (French : _moyen français_) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries
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