HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
[...More...]

"French Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Francophonie
 _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ Map of the Francophone world showing the different statuses of French on each continent FRANCOPHONIE, sometimes also spelt FRANCOPHONIA in English , is the quality of speaking French . It is not to be confused with the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie , sometimes also informally called "la Francophonie". The term designates the ensemble of people, organisations and governments that share the use of French on a daily basis or/and as administrative language, teaching language or chosen language. DENOMINATIONSFRANCOPHONIE, FRANCOPHONIE and FRANCOPHONE SPACE are syntagmatic expressions that are sometimes misunderstood or misused. They can be synonymous but most of the time they are complementary. • "francophonie", with a small "f", refers to populations and people who speak French for communication or/and in their daily lives. • "Francophonie", with a capital "F", can be defined as referring to the governments, governmental and non-governmental organisations or governing officials that share the use of French in their work and exchange
[...More...]

"Francophonie" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille , Lyon , Lille , Nice , Toulouse and Bordeaux . During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls , a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome , which held Gaul until 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region and formed the Kingdom of France
[...More...]

"France" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

First Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term _native language_ or _mother tongue_ refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a _second language _ is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism * 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary in North Carolina . The language immersion school, operated by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians , teaches the same curriculum as other American primary schools , but Cherokee is the medium of instruction from preschool onward, and students learn it as a first language. Such schools have proven instrumental in the preservation and perpetuation of Cherokee
[...More...]

"First Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Second Language
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition . This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption ), to a new language environment
[...More...]

"Second Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
[...More...]

"Language Family" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
[...More...]

"Indo-European Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Italic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
[...More...]

"Italic Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Romance Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
[...More...]

"Romance Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Western Romance Languages
WESTERN ROMANCE LANGUAGES are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line . They include the Gallo-Romance and Iberian-Romance branches as well as northern Italian. The subdivision is based solely on the use of the "s" for pluralization and the weakening of some consonants, but that makes the categorization highly problematic because there is much higher lexical similarity between all dialects of Italian and French than between French and Spanish. There is also much higher morphological similarity between Spanish and Italian dialects than between Italian and French. Based on mutual intelligibility , Dalby counts a dozen languages: Portuguese , Spanish , Asturian-Leonese , Aragonese , Catalan , Gascon , Provençal , Gallo-Wallon , French , Franco-Provençal , Romansh , and Ladin . This classification criterion is however problematic, due to the much higher levels of mutual intelligibility between Italic and Iberian languages than between either of these with Gallo-Romance languages. Some classifications include Italo-Dalmatian ; the resulting clade is generally called Italo-Western Romance . Other classifications place Italo-Dalmatian with Eastern Romance . Sardinian does not fit into either Western or Eastern Romance, and may have split off before either. Today the four most-widely spoken standardized Western Romance languages are Spanish (c
[...More...]

"Western Romance Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Gallo-Romance Languages
The GALLO-ROMANCE branch of the Romance languages includes _sensu stricto _ the Oïl languages (French and its closest relatives such as Walloon ) and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan). However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Occitano-Romance , Gallo- Italic languages , and Rhaeto-Romance . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Traditional geographical extension * 3 General characteristics * 4 References CLASSIFICATION _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (January 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ _ This article POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (January 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_The Gallo-Romance group includes: * The Langues d\'oïl , or Oïl languages. These include Standard French , Picard , Walloon , Lorrain and Normand , Poitevin , Bourgignon . These are the most phonologically innovative Romance varieties. * The Arpitan language, also known as Franco-Provençal, of southeastern France, western Switzerland, and Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy
[...More...]

"Gallo-Romance Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Langues D'oïl
The LANGUES D\'OïL (/ˈwiːl/ French : ), or OïL LANGUAGES (also in French: langues d'oui ), is a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives spoken today in the northern half of France
France
, southern Belgium
Belgium
, and the Channel Islands . They belong to the larger Gallo- Romance languages
Romance languages
, which also cover most of east-central ( Arpitania ) and southern France ( Occitania ), northern Italy
Italy
, and eastern Spain
Spain
. Linguists divide the Romance languages
Romance languages
of France, and especially of Medieval France, into three geographical subgroups: the first two are Langues d'oïl
Langues d'oïl
and occitan , both named after their words for 'yes' (oïl and òc, respectively), and the third is Franco-Provençal (Arpitan), which is considered transitional
[...More...]

"Langues D'oïl" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Old French
OLD FRENCH (_franceis_, _françois_, _romanz_; Modern French _ancien français_) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the _langue d\'oïl _, contrasting with the _langue d\'oc _ or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance , specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France region. The place and area where Old French was spoken natively roughly extended to the historical Kingdom of France and its vassals (including parts of the Angevin Empire , which during the 12th century remained under Anglo-Norman rule), and Burgundy , Lorraine and Savoy to the east (corresponding to modern north-central France , Belgian Wallonia , western Switzerland and northwestern Italy ), but the influence of Old French was much wider, as it was carried to England , Sicily and the Crusader states as the language of a feudal elite and of commerce
[...More...]

"Old French" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Middle French
MIDDLE FRENCH (French : _moyen français_) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries. It is a period of transition during which: * the French language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages , which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of Old French (_ancien français_) * the French language was imposed as the official language of the kingdom of France
France
in place of Latin
Latin
and other Oïl and Occitan languages * the literary development of French prepared the vocabulary and grammar for the Classical French
Classical French
(_français classique_) spoken in the 17th and 18th centuries.CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Literature * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe most important change found in Middle French is the complete disappearance of the noun declension system (already underway for centuries)
[...More...]

"Middle French" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
[...More...]

"Writing System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet