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French Horn
The FRENCH HORN (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The DOUBLE HORN IN F/B♭ (technically a variety of German horn ) is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of propulsion of air through the instrument (controlled by the player's lungs and thoracic diaphragm ); diameter and tension of lip aperture (controlled by the player's lip muscles—the embouchure ) in the mouthpiece; plus, in a modern French horn, the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra sections of tubing. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves , but some, especially older horns, use piston valves (similar to a trumpet 's) and the Vienna horn uses double-piston valves, or pumpenvalves . The backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument (similar to a bugle ). Pitch may also be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, in effect reducing the bell's diameter
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Brass Instrument
A BRASS INSTRUMENT is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips. Brass instruments are also called _labrosones_, literally meaning "lip-vibrated instruments". There are several factors involved in producing different pitches on a brass instrument . Slides , valves , crooks (though they are rarely used today), or keys are used to change vibratory length of tubing, thus changing the available harmonic series , while the player's embouchure , lip tension and air flow serve to select the specific harmonic produced from the available series. The view of most scholars (see organology ) is that the term "brass instrument" should be defined by the way the sound is made, as above, and not by whether the instrument is actually made of brass . Thus one finds brass instruments made of wood, like the alphorn , the cornett , the serpent and the didgeridoo , while some woodwind instruments are made of brass, like the saxophone . CONTENTS* 1 Families * 1.1 Bore taper and diameter * 1.1.1 Cylindrical vs. conical bore * 1.1.2 Whole-tube vs
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies ( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ (_ listen ); español_ (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ (_ listen ), castellano_ (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese . Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Italian Language
ITALIAN (_ italiano_ (help ·info ) or _lingua italiana_ ) is a Romance language . By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy , Switzerland , San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia ). It used to have official status in Albania , Malta and Monaco , where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia . It has official minority status in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Slovenia and Romania . Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages . Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe . It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers (13% of the EU population) and it is spoken as a second language by 14 million EU citizens (3%)
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Musical Instrument
A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds . In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute , dates back as far as 67,000 years. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them. Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, wood, and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin
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Aerophone
An AEROPHONE (/ˈɛəroʊfoʊn/ ) is any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. Aerophones categorically comprise "the largest and most complex group of instruments in the Americas". CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Types * 3.1 Free * 3.1.1 Displacement * 3.1.2 Interruptive * 3.1.3 Plosive * 3.2 Non-free * 3.2.1 Flute
Flute
* 3.2.2 Reed * 3.2.3 Brass * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading OVERVIEWAerophones are one of the four main classes of instruments in the original Hornbostel–Sachs system of musical instrument classification , which further classifies aerophones by whether or not the vibrating air is contained within the instrument. The first class (41) includes instruments which, when played, do _not_ contain the vibrating air. The bullroarer is one example. These are called _free aerophones_. This class includes (412.13) free reed instruments, such as the harmonica , but also many instruments unlikely to be called wind instruments at all by most people, such as sirens and whips . The second class (42) includes instruments which contain the vibrating air when being played
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Wind Instrument
A WIND INSTRUMENT is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual modifications of the effective length of the vibrating column of air. In the case of some wind instruments, sound is produced by blowing through a reed; others require buzzing into a metal mouthpiece. CONTENTS * 1 Methods for obtaining different notes * 2 Types of wind instruments * 3 Physics of sound production * 4 Parts * 5 Breath pressure * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links METHODS FOR OBTAINING DIFFERENT NOTES * Using different air columns for different tones, such as in the pan flute . * Changing the length of the vibrating air column by changing the length of the tube through engaging valves _(see rotary valve , piston valve )_ which route the air through additional tubing, thereby increasing overall tube length, lowering the fundamental pitch. This method is used on nearly all brass instruments . * Changing the length of the vibrating air column by lengthening and/or shortening the tube using a sliding mechanism. This method is used on the trombone and the slide whistle . * Changing the frequency of vibration through opening or closing holes in the side of the tube
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Hornbostel–Sachs
HORNBOSTEL–SACHS or SACHS–HORNBOSTEL is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel
Erich Moritz von Hornbostel
and Curt Sachs , and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. An English translation was published in the Galpin Society Journal in 1961. It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments by ethnomusicologists and organologists (people who study musical instruments). The system was updated in 2011 as part of the work of the Musical Instrument Museums Online (MIMO) Project. Hornbostel and Sachs based their ideas on a system devised in the late 19th century by Victor-Charles Mahillon
Victor-Charles Mahillon
, the curator of musical instruments at Brussels Conservatory
Brussels Conservatory
. Mahillon divided instruments into four broad categories according to the nature of the sound-producing material: an air column; string; membrane; and body of the instrument. Mahillon limited his system, for the most part, to instruments used in European classical music . From this basis, Hornbostel and Sachs expanded Mahillon's system to make it possible to classify any instrument from any culture. Formally, the Hornbostel–Sachs is modeled on the Dewey Decimal Classification for libraries
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Range (music)
In music , the RANGE of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. For a singing voice , the equivalent is _vocal range _. The range of a musical part is the distance between its lowest and highest note . The terms SOUNDING RANGE, WRITTEN RANGE, DESIGNATED RANGE, DURATION RANGE and DYNAMIC RANGE have specific meanings. The SOUNDING RANGE refers to the pitches produced by an instrument, while the WRITTEN RANGE refers to the compass (span) of notes written in the sheet music, where the part is sometimes transposed for convenience. A piccolo
piccolo
, for example, typically has a sounding range one octave higher than its written range. The DESIGNATED RANGE is the set of notes the player should or can achieve while playing. All instruments have a designated range, and all pitched instruments have a playing range. Timbre, dynamics, and duration ranges are interrelated and one may achieve registral range at the expense of timbre. The designated range is thus the range in which a player is expected to have comfortable control of all aspects. The DURATION RANGE is the difference between the shortest and longest rhythm used. DYNAMIC RANGE is the difference between the quietest and loudest volume of an instrument, part or piece of music
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Perfect Fifth
In music theory , a PERFECT FIFTH is the musical interval corresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2, or very nearly so. In classical music from Western culture , a FIFTH is the interval from the first to the last of five consecutive notes in a diatonic scale . The perfect fifth (often abbreviated P5) spans seven semitones , while the diminished fifth spans six and the augmented fifth spans eight semitones. For example, the interval from C to G is a perfect fifth, as the note G lies seven semitones above C. Play (help ·info ) The perfect fifth may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the second and third harmonics. In a diatonic scale, the dominant note is a perfect fifth above the tonic note. The perfect fifth is more consonant , or stable, than any other interval except the unison and the octave . It occurs above the root of all major and minor chords (triads) and their extensions . Until the late 19th century, it was often referred to by one of its Greek names, _DIAPENTE_. Its inversion is the perfect fourth . The octave of the fifth is the twelfth. A helpful way to recognize a perfect fifth is to hum the start of " Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star "; the pitch of the first "twinkle" is the root note and pitch of the second "twinkle" is a perfect fifth above it
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Perfect Fourth
In classical music from Western culture , a FOURTH is a musical interval encompassing four staff positions (see Interval number for more details), and the PERFECT FOURTH ( Play (help ·info )) is a fourth spanning five semitones (half steps, or half tones). For example, the ascending interval from C to the next F is a perfect fourth, as the note F lies five semitones above C, and there are four staff positions from C to F. Diminished and augmented fourths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones (four and six). The perfect fourth may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the third and fourth harmonics. The term perfect identifies this interval as belonging to the group of perfect intervals, so called because they are neither major nor minor (unlike thirds, which are either minor or major ) but perfect. Up until the late 19th century, the perfect fourth was often called by its Greek name, DIATESSARON. Its most common occurrence is between the fifth and upper root of all major and minor triads and their extensions . A perfect fourth in just intonation corresponds to a pitch ratio of 4:3, or about 498 cents ( Play (help ·info )), while in equal temperament a perfect fourth is equal to five semitones , or 500 cents
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Tenor Horn
The TENOR HORN (British English ; ALTO HORN in American English , ALTHORN in Germany ; occasionally referred to as E♭ HORN) is a brass instrument in the saxhorn family, and is usually pitched in E♭. It has a bore that is mostly conical, like the flugelhorn and baritone horn , and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece . It is most commonly used in British brass bands , whereas the French horn tends to take the corresponding parts in concert bands and orchestras . However, the tenor horn has occasionally been used as an alternative to the French horn in concert bands. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Range * 2.1 Notation * 3 History * 4 Repertoire * 5 Notes * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONThe tenor horn is a valved brass instrument (in E♭) which has a predominantly conical bore like the baritone horn and flugelhorn . It uses a deep funnel- or cup-shaped mouthpiece . The tenor horn's conical bore and deep mouthpiece produce a mellow, rounded tone which is often used as a middle voice, supporting the melodies of the trumpets , cornets or flugelhorns , and filling the gap above the lower tenor and bass instruments (the trombone , baritone horn, euphonium and tuba ). Its valves are typically, though not exclusively, piston valves
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Baritone Horn
Wind , brass Aerophone HORNBOSTEL–SACHS CLASSIFICATION 423.232 (Valved aerophone sounded by lip movement) PLAYING RANGE The written range of baritone horn, which when written in the treble clef as shown is transposed upwards a major ninth from the instrument's concert pitch. RELATED INSTRUMENTS * Saxhorns * Flugelhorn * Alto horn * Horns * German horn * French horn * Vienna horn * Trumpet * Trombone * Euphonium * Tuba * Alphorn MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WOODWINDS BRASS INSTRUMENTS * Trumpet * Trombone * Cornet * Alto horn * Baritone horn * Flugelhorn * Mellophone * Euphonium * Helicon * Tuba * French horn PERCUSSION STRING INSTRUMENTS KEYBOARDS The BARITONE HORN, or sometimes just called baritone, is a low-pitched brass instrument in the saxhorn family. It is a piston-valve brass instrument with a bore that is mostly conical , like the flugelhorn and alto (tenor) horn , but is narrower than the conical bore of the euphonium . It uses a wide-rimmed cup mouthpiece like that of its peers, the trombone and euphonium. Like the trombone and the euphonium, the baritone horn can be considered either a transposing or non-transposing instrument
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German Horn
The GERMAN HORN is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell, and in bands and orchestras is the most widely used of three types of horn , the other two being the French horn (in the less common, narrower meaning of the term) and the Vienna horn . Its use among professional players has become so universal that it is only in France and Vienna that any other kind of horn is used today. A musician who plays the German horn is called a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). The word "German" is used only to distinguish this instrument from the now-rare French and Viennese instruments. Although the expression "French horn" is still used colloquially in English for any orchestral horn (German, French, or Viennese), since the 1930s professional musicians and scholars have generally avoided this term in favour of just "horn". Vienna horns today are played only in Vienna, and are made only by Austrian firms. German horns, by contrast, are not all made by German manufacturers (e.g., Paxman in London; Conn in the US), nor are all French-style instruments made in France (e.g., Reynolds, during the 1940s and 50s in the US). NAMEThe name "German horn" is used to distinguish this instrument from other, similar types of orchestral horn, such as the French horn (in the sense of the type of instrument designed by French makers and favoured by French players) and the Vienna horn
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