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French Horn
The FRENCH HORN (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The DOUBLE HORN IN F/B♭ (technically a variety of German horn
German horn
) is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of propulsion of air through the instrument (controlled by the player's lungs and thoracic diaphragm ); diameter and tension of lip aperture (controlled by the player's lip muscles—the embouchure ) in the mouthpiece; plus, in a modern French horn, the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra sections of tubing
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Helicon (instrument)
The HELICON is a brass musical instrument in the tuba family. Most are B♭ basses, but they also commonly exist in E♭, F, and tenor sizes, as well as other types to a lesser extent. The sousaphone is a specialized version of the helicon. The first sousaphone, a non-production prototype made by J. W. Pepper "> and is a common choice for military fanfares. It is used by Ed Neuhauser of the traditional folk band Bellowhead
Bellowhead
. The range of the B♭ Helicon is two octaves below that of a B♭ cornet . HISTORYThe helicon is derived from the saxhorn , or the saxtuba . Helicons were first used in the 1860s for use in Cavalry Bands, then later used in Military marching bands
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Semitone
A SEMITONE, also called a HALF STEP or a HALF TONE, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically. It is defined as the interval between two adjacent notes in a 12-tone scale . For example, C is adjacent to C♯; the interval between them is a semitone. In a 12-note approximately equally divided scale, any interval can be defined in terms of an appropriate number of semitones (e.g. a whole tone or major second is 2 semitones wide, a major third 4 semitones, and a perfect fifth 7 semitones. In music theory , a distinction is made between a DIATONIC SEMITONE, or MINOR SECOND (an interval encompassing two staff positions , e.g. from C to D♭) and a CHROMATIC SEMITONE or AUGMENTED UNISON (an interval between two notes at the same staff position , e.g. from C to C♯)
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Perfect Fourth
In classical music from Western culture , a FOURTH is a musical interval encompassing four staff positions (see Interval number for more details), and the PERFECT FOURTH ( Play (help ·info )) is a fourth spanning five semitones (half steps, or half tones). For example, the ascending interval from C to the next F is a perfect fourth, as the note F lies five semitones above C, and there are four staff positions from C to F. Diminished and augmented fourths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones (four and six). The perfect fourth may be derived from the harmonic series as the interval between the third and fourth harmonics. The term perfect identifies this interval as belonging to the group of perfect intervals, so called because they are neither major nor minor (unlike thirds, which are either minor or major ) but perfect
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International Horn Society
The INTERNATIONAL HORN SOCIETY (IHS) is an international organization dedicated to players of the horn . It was founded in June 1970. It holds an annual symposium , and publishes a journal, The Horn Call. :5 REFERENCES * ^ John Humphries (2000). The Early Horn: A Practical Guide. Cambridge Handbooks to the Historical Performance of Music. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521632102 . This article about a music organization is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Descant
DESCANT, DISCANT , or DISCANTUS can refer to several different things in music , depending on the period in question; etymologically, the word means a voice (cantus) above or removed from others. A descant is a form of medieval music in which one singer sang a fixed melody , and others accompanied with improvisations . The word in this sense comes from the term discantus supra librum (descant "above the book"), and is a form of Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
in which only the melody is notated but an improvised polyphony is understood. The discantus supra librum had specific rules governing the improvisation of the additional voices. Later on, the term came to mean the treble or soprano singer in any group of voices, or the higher pitched line in a song. Eventually, by the Renaissance
Renaissance
, descant referred generally to counterpoint . Nowadays the counterpoint meaning is the most common
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Percussion
A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles ); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice . The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani , snare drum , bass drum , cymbals , triangle and tambourine . However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens , or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion . On the other hand, keyboard instruments , such as the celesta , are not normally part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone (which do not have piano keyboards) are included
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Thoracic Diaphragm
In human anatomy , the THORACIC DIAPHRAGM, or simply the DIAPHRAGM ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: διάφραγμα diáphragma "partition"), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity . The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and lungs , from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration : as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs. The term diaphragm in anatomy can refer to other flat structures such as the urogenital diaphragm or pelvic diaphragm , but "the diaphragm" generally refers to the thoracic diaphragm. In humans, the diaphragm is slightly asymmetric—its right half is higher up (superior) to the left half, since the large liver rests beneath the right half of the diaphragm
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Harmonics
A HARMONIC is any member of the harmonic series , a divergent infinite series. Its name derives from the concept of overtones , or harmonics in musical instruments : the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string or a column of air (as with a tuba ) are derived from the string's (or air column's) fundamental wavelength. Every term of the series (i.e., the higher harmonics) after the first is the "harmonic mean " of the neighboring terms. The phrase "harmonic mean" likewise derives from music. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics , electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency
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Range (music)
In music , the RANGE of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. For a singing voice , the equivalent is vocal range . The range of a musical part is the distance between its lowest and highest note . The terms SOUNDING RANGE, WRITTEN RANGE, DESIGNATED RANGE, DURATION RANGE and DYNAMIC RANGE have specific meanings. The SOUNDING RANGE refers to the pitches produced by an instrument, while the WRITTEN RANGE refers to the compass (span) of notes written in the sheet music, where the part is sometimes transposed for convenience. A piccolo , for example, typically has a sounding range one octave higher than its written range. The DESIGNATED RANGE is the set of notes the player should or can achieve while playing. All instruments have a designated range, and all pitched instruments have a playing range. Timbre, dynamics, and duration ranges are interrelated and one may achieve registral range at the expense of timbre
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Harmonic Series (music)
A HARMONIC SERIES is the sequence of sounds —pure tones, represented by sinusoidal waves—in which the frequency of each sound is an integer multiple of the fundamental, the lowest frequency. Pitched musical instruments are often based on an acoustic resonator such as a string or a column of air, which oscillates at numerous modes simultaneously. At the frequencies of each vibrating mode, waves travel in both directions along the string or air column, reinforcing and canceling each other to form standing waves . Interaction with the surrounding air causes audible sound waves , which travel away from the instrument. Because of the typical spacing of the resonances , these frequencies are mostly limited to integer multiples, or harmonics , of the lowest frequency, and such multiples form the harmonic series (see harmonic series (mathematics) )
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
). It used to have official status in Albania
Albania
, Malta
Malta
and Monaco
Monaco
, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies
Association of Spanish Language Academies
( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language
Spanish language
in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ ( listen ); español (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Bore (wind Instruments)
In music , the BORE of a wind instrument (including woodwind and brass ) is its interior chamber. This defines a flow path through which air travels, which is set into vibration to produce sounds. The shape of the bore has a strong influence on the instrument's timbre . CONTENTS* 1 Bore shapes * 1.1 Cylindrical bore * 1.2 Conical bore * 2 Woodwinds * 3 Brasses * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References BORE SHAPESThe cone and the cylinder are the two idealized shapes used to describe the bores of wind instruments . These shapes affect the prominence of harmonics associated with the timbre of the instrument. CYLINDRICAL BOREThe diameter of a cylindrical bore remains constant along its length. The acoustic behavior depends on whether the instrument is stopped (closed at one end and open at the other), or open (at both ends)
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
* Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul
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