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Free Imperial City Of Nuremberg
The Imperial City of Nuremberg (German: Reichsstadt Nürnberg) was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire. After Nuremberg gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate of Nuremberg in the High Middle Ages and considerable territory from Bavaria in the Landshut War of Succession, it grew to become one of the largest and most important Imperial cities, the 'unofficial capital' of the Empire, particularly because Imperial Diets (Reichstage) and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the Empire
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German Language
German (Deutsch, pronounced [dɔʏtʃ] (About this soundlisten)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group
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Burgrave
Burgrave (from German: Burggraf, Latin: burggravius, burcgravius, burgicomes) was since the medieval period a title for the ruler of a castle, especially a royal or episcopal castle, as well as a castle district (castellany) or fortified settlement or city. The burgrave was a count in rank (German Graf, Latin Comes) equipped with judicial powers. The title became hereditary in certain feudal families and was associated with a territory or domain called a Burgraviate (German Burggrafschaft, Latin Prefectura)
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Nuremberg Chronicle
The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible; it includes the histories of a number of important Western cities. Written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493. It is one of the best-documented early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to successfully integrate illustrations and text. Latin scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum (Book of Chronicles) as this phrase appears in the index introduction of the Latin edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg Chronicle after the city in which it was published
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St. Lorenz, Nuremberg
St. Lorenz (St. Lawrence) is a medieval church of the former free imperial city of Nuremberg in southern Germany. It is dedicated to Saint Lawrence. The church was badly damaged during the Second World War and later restored
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Celts
The Celts (/kɛlts, sɛlts/, see pronunciation of Celt for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial. The exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is also disputed; in particular, the ways in which the Iron Age inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland should be regarded as Celts have become a subject of controversy. The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain
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Bavarian Nordgau
The March of the Nordgau (German: Markgrafschaft Nordgau) or Bavarian Nordgau (Bayerischer Nordgau) was a medieval administrative unit (Gau) on the frontier of the German Duchy of Bavaria
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Stem Duchy
A stem duchy (German: Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century. The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire declined in the late 9th century, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as the subdivisions of the realm. These are the five stem duchies (sometimes also called "younger stem duchies" in reference to the pre-Carolingian tribal duchies): Bavaria, Franconia, Lotharingia, Saxony and Swabia (Alemannia)
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Duchy Of Franconia
The Duchy of Franconia (German: Herzogtum Franken) was one of the five stem duchies of East Francia and the medieval Kingdom of Germany emerging in the early 10th century
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East Francia
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire. A successor state of Charlemagne's empire, it was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911
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March Of The Nordgau
The March of the Nordgau (German: Markgrafschaft Nordgau) or Bavarian Nordgau (Bayerischer Nordgau) was a medieval administrative unit (Gau) on the frontier of the German Duchy of Bavaria
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Conrad III Of Germany
Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty
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Condominium (international Law)
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones. Although a condominium has always been recognized as a theoretical possibility, condominia have been rare in practice. A major problem, and the reason so few have existed, is the difficulty of ensuring co-operation between the sovereign powers; once the understanding fails, the status is likely to become untenable. The word is recorded in English since c. 1714, from Modern Latin, apparently coined in Germany c. 1700 from Latin com- "together" + dominium "right of ownership" (compare domain)
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Hohenstaufen
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen (German: [ˌhoːənˈʃtaʊfən]), were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268). In Italian historiography, they are known as the Svevi (Swabians), since they were (successive) dukes of Swabia from 1079
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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Sicilian: Fidiricu, Italian: Federico, German: Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. His mother Constance was Queen of Sicily and his father was Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Frederick's reign saw the Holy Roman Empire reaching its all time territorial peak.
Dominions of Frederick II
His political and cultural ambitions were enormous as he ruled a vast area beginning with Sicily and stretching through Italy all the way north to Germany. As the Crusades succeeded, he acquired control of Jerusalem and styled himself as its king. However, the Papacy became his enemy as time went by and it eventually prevailed. His dynasty collapsed soon after his death
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