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Frazione
A FRAZIONE ( ; pl. frazioni ) is the Italian name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune ; for other administrative divisions , see municipio , circoscrizione , quartiere . It is cognate to the English word fraction, but in practice is roughly equivalent to "parishes " or "wards " in other countries. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Countries using the term * 4 Officers * 5 References * 6 See also DESCRIPTIONTypically the term frazioni applies to the villages surrounding the principal town (the capoluogo ) of a comune. Subdivision of a comune is optional; some comuni have no frazioni, but others have several dozen. The comune usually has the same name of the capoluogo, but not always. In practice, most frazioni are small villages or hamlets , occasionally a clump of houses. Not every hamlet is classified as a frazione; those that are not are often referred to as località , for example, in the telephone book
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Half-canton
The 26 CANTONS OF SWITZERLAND (German : Kanton, French : canton, Italian : cantone, Romansh : chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation
Swiss Confederation
. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte . Two further major steps in the development of the Swiss cantonal system are referred to by the terms Acht Alten Orte ("confederation of eight"; between 1353 and 1481) and Dreizehn Alten Orte ("Thirteen-Canton Confederation", during 1513–1798); they were important intermediate periods of the Ancient Swiss Confederacy
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Mayor
In many countries, a MAYOR (from the Latin
Latin
maior , meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town . Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board
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Switzerland
SWITZERLAND (/ˈswɪtsərlənd/ ), officially the SWISS CONFEDERATION, is a federal republic in Europe
Europe
. It consists of 26 cantons , and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western -Central Europe
Europe
, and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps
Alps
, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura , spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in Europe
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Micropolitan Statistical Area
Population * Area * Density * Ethnic identity * Foreign-born * Income * Spanish speakers * By decade URBAN AREAS Populous cities and metropolitan areas METROPOLITAN AREAS * 574 Primary Statistical Areas * 169 Combined Statistical Areas * 929 Core Based Statistical Areas * 388 Metropolitan Statistical Areas * 540 Micropolitan Statistical Areas MEGAREGIONS * SEE ALSO * North American metro areas * World cities * v * t * e UNITED STATES MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS (µSA, where the initial Greek letter mu represents "micro- "), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), are labor market areas in the United States centered on an urban cluster (urban area) with a population at least 10,000 but fewer than 50,000 people. The micropolitan area designation was created in 2003
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Metropolitan Statistical Area
Population * Area * Density * Ethnic identity * Foreign-born * Income * Spanish speakers * By decade URBAN AREAS Populous cities and metropolitan areas METROPOLITAN AREAS * 574 Primary Statistical Areas * 169 Combined Statistical Areas * 929 Core Based Statistical Areas * 388 Metropolitan Statistical Areas * 540 Micropolitan Statistical Areas MEGAREGIONS * SEE ALSO * North American metro areas * World cities * v * t * e See also: List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas
List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas
In the United States
United States
, a METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are neither legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like counties or separate entities such as states
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Protected Area
PROTECTED AREAS or CONSERVATION AREAS are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organisations involved. The term "protected area" also includes Marine Protected Areas , the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, and Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world (as of October 2010) with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas
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Statistical Area (United States)
Population * Area * Density * Ethnic identity * Foreign-born * Income * Spanish speakers * By decade URBAN AREAS Populous cities and metropolitan areas METROPOLITAN AREAS * 574 Primary Statistical Areas * 169 Combined Statistical Areas
Combined Statistical Areas
* 929 Core Based Statistical Areas * 389 Metropolitan Statistical Areas * 540 Micropolitan Statistical Areas MEGAREGIONS * SEE ALSO * North American metro areas * World cities * v * t * e The United States federal government defines and delineates the nation's metropolitan areas for statistical purposes, using a set of standard STATISTICAL AREA definitions. As of 2013, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defined and delineated 388 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and 541 micropolitan statistical areas (μSAs) in the United States
United States
and Puerto Rico
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Combined Statistical Area
Population * Area * Density * Ethnic identity * Foreign-born * Income * Spanish speakers * By decade URBAN AREAS Populous cities and metropolitan areas METROPOLITAN AREAS * 574 Primary Statistical Areas * 169 Combined Statistical Areas * 929 Core Based Statistical Areas * 389 Metropolitan Statistical Areas * 540 Micropolitan Statistical Areas MEGAREGIONS * SEE ALSO * North American metro areas * World cities * v * t * e A COMBINED STATISTICAL AREA (CSA) is composed of adjacent metropolitan (MSA) and micropolitan statistical areas (µSA) in the United States
United States
and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
that can demonstrate economic or social linkage
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Fascism
FASCISM /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism , characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I
World War I
before it spread to other European countries . Opposed to liberalism , Marxism and anarchism , fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum . Fascists saw World War I
World War I
as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war
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Regions Of Italy
The REGIONS OF ITALY (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy
Italy
, constituting its second NUTS administrative level . There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes. Each region, except for the Aosta Valley , is divided into provinces . Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution
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Cognate
In linguistics , COGNATES are words that have a common etymological origin. In etymology , the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords . The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Across languages * 3 Within the same language * 4 False cognates * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CHARACTERISTICSCognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben ("to die") all derive from the same Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root, *sterbaną ("die"). English dish and German Tisch ("table"), with their flat surfaces, both come from Latin
Latin
discus, but their later meanings are different
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City State
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state that consists of a city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies to Singapore
Singapore
, Monaco , and Vatican City
Vatican City
. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Incorporated City
A MUNICIPAL CORPORATION is the legal term for a local governing body , including (but not necessarily limited to) cities , counties , towns , townships , charter townships , villages , and boroughs . The term can also be used to describe municipally-owned enterprises. Municipal corporations are by definition incorporated, in contrast to unincorporated areas . CONTENTS* 1 Municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
as local self-government * 1.1 Canada * 1.2 India * 1.3 Ireland * 1.4 United States * 2 Municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
as enterprises * 3 See also * 4 References MUNICIPAL CORPORATION AS LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTMunicipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter
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Municipio
MUNICIPIO (Spanish: , Italian: ) and MUNICíPIO (Portuguese: ) are country subdivisions in Italy
Italy
and several Hispanophone
Hispanophone
and Lusophone nations, respectively. They are often translated as "municipality ". In the English language, a municipality often is defined as relating to a single city or town; however, in Spanish, the term "municipio" may not mean a single city or town, but rather a jurisdiction housing several towns and cities, like a township , county , borough , or civil parish . The Italian term "municipalità" refers either to a single city or a group of cities and towns in a township, but the Portuguese use is almost entirely restricted to group of cities or towns like in a county, township, and so forth
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