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Frankfurt Constitution
The Frankfurt Constitution
Constitution
(German: Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution
Constitution
of St. Paul's Church (Paulskirchenverfassung), officially named the Constitution
Constitution
of the German Empire
German Empire
(Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) of 28 March 1849, was an unsuccessful attempt to create a unified German nation state in the successor states of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
organised in the German Confederation. Adopted and proclaimed by the Frankfurt Parliament
Frankfurt Parliament
after the Revolutions of 1848, the constitution contained a charter of fundamental rights and a democratic government in the form of a constitutional monarchy
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Directory (political)
A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state or a head of government. In political history, the term directory, in French directoire, is applied to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the Directory of 1795–1799 in France.[1] The system was inspired by the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, which prominently featured a collegial 12-member Supreme Executive Council with a primus inter pares President. Variants of this form of government, based on the French model, were also established in the European regions conquered by France
France
during the French Revolutionary Wars. In the past, Uruguay, Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(after Tito's death), Ukraine,[2] and other countries were ruled by directories
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Reichsflotte
The Reichsflotte
Reichsflotte
(German: [ˈʁaɪçsˌflɔtə], Imperial Fleet) was the first navy for all of Germany, established by the revolutionary German Empire
German Empire
to provide a naval force in the First Schleswig War against Denmark. The decision was made on 14 June 1848 by the Frankfurt Parliament,[1] which is considered by the modern German Navy as its birthday.[2] In December 1849 the imperial government was replaced by a federal commission. In 1851 the German Confederation
German Confederation
was fully re-established. The German states such as Prussia, Hanover and Austria had a quarrel regarding the ships and the costs to sustain a fleet
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Multinational State
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations. This is in contrast to a nation state, where a single nation accounts for the bulk of the population. Depending on the definition of "nation" (which touches on ethnicity, language, and political identity), a multinational state might also be multicultural or multilingual. Present-day examples of multinational states are Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Madagascar, Montenegro, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Historical multinational states that have since split into multiple sovereign states include Austria-Hungary, British India, Czechoslovakia, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia
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House Of Lorraine
Lorraine: 1738 – Francis I ceded title in accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, gaining Tuscany Holy Roman Empire, Luxembourg, Brabant, and Flanders: 1805 – Francis II & I ceded titles in accordance with the Peace of Pressburg Parma: 1847 – Marie Louise died without issue Tuscany: 1859 – Leopold II abdicated due to pressure from Italian nationalists Mexico: 1867 – Maximilian I executed by Liberal revolutionaries Austria, Hungary and Bohemia: 1918 – Charles I & IV relinquished participation in state affairs following the end of World War ICadet branchesVaudemont Guise (extinct) Habsburg-LorraineAustria-Este HohenbergThe House of Lorraine
House of Lorraine
(German: Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir
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Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire
Empire
(Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919 (losing Hungary
Hungary
in 1867) created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire
Empire
and France
France
in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the second largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire
Empire
(621,538 square kilometres [239,977 sq mi]). Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until the latter's dissolution in 1806
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Gerhard Casper
Gerhard Casper
Gerhard Casper
(born December 25, 1937)[1] was the ninth president of Stanford University
Stanford University
from 1992 to 2000. He is currently president of the American Academy in Berlin.[2][3] Casper is also a senior fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI) at Stanford, and has been appointed to serve as the institute’s director between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Casper is also the Peter and Helen Bing Professor in Undergraduate Education, emeritus, and is a professor, emeritus, at Stanford Law School.Contents1 Biography and academic career 2 Stanford University 3 American Academy in Berlin 4 Honors, awards and leadership 5 Notes 6 External linksBiography and academic career[edit] Born December 25, 1937, Gerhard Casper
Gerhard Casper
grew up in Hamburg, Germany
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1] .mw-parser-output .nobold f
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica, meaning “public affair”) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied
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Journal Of Legal Studies
The Journal of Legal
Legal
Studies is a law journal published by the University of Chicago Press
University of Chicago Press
focusing on interdisciplinary academic research in law and legal institutions. It emphasizes social science approaches, especially those of economics, political science, and psychology. The journal was established in 1972. Richard Posner
Richard Posner
was a founding editor. External links[edit]Official websiteThis article about a social science journal is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eSee tips for writing articles about academic journals
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Elective Monarchy
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance. The manner of election, the nature of candidate qualifications, and the electors vary from case to case
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August Heinrich Simon
August Heinrich Simon
Heinrich Simon
(29 October 1805 – 16 August 1860) was a German democratic politician. External links[edit]Simon, Heinrich in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Heinrich Simon
Heinrich Simon
at the Swiss Literary Archives Christian Jansen (2010), "Simon, August Heinrich", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 24, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 432–433 ; (full text online) Alfred Stern (1892), "Simon, Heinrich", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 34, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 371–376  August Heinrich Simon
Heinrich Simon
in the Simon section of the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon from 1880Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 50001971 LCCN: nr99028975 GND: 117398381 HDS: 28091This German biographical article is a stub
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Hereditary Monarchy
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family. It represents an institutionalised form of nepotism.[1] It is historically the most common type of monarchy and remains the dominant form in extant monarchies. It has the advantages of continuity of the concentration of power and wealth and predictability of who one can expect to control the means of governance and patronage
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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Battle Of Heligoland (1849)
The first Battle of Heligoland
Heligoland
took place on 4 June 1849 during the First Schleswig War
First Schleswig War
and pitted the fledgling Reichsflotte
Reichsflotte
(Imperial Fleet) against the Royal Danish Navy, which had blocked German naval trade in North Sea
North Sea
and Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
since early 1848. The outcome was inconclusive, with no casualties, and the blockade went on
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