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Frank Werblin
Frank Werblin is Professor of the Graduate School, Division of Neurobiology at the University of California, Berkeley.[1] Education[edit] Werblin earned his Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
studying with Professor John Dowling. He was a Guggenheim Fellow,[2] and is noted for discovering a number of cellular correlates underlying visual information processing in the retina. Career[edit] In 1969, Werblin and Dowling published their seminal studies of the electrophysiological response properties of all the major neuron types in the vertebrate retina.[3] The micropipette used to record from each cell contained a dye so that each physiologically identified cell could also be morphologically characterized within the layers of the retina
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University Of California, Berkeley
Urban Total 1,232 acres (499 ha) Core Campus 178 acres (72 ha)[5] Total land owned 6,679 acres (2,703 ha)[6]Colors Berkeley Blue, California
California
Gold[7]          Athletics NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
FBS – Pac-12Nickname Golden BearsSporting affiliationsAm. East MPSFMascot Oski the BearWebsite www.berkeley.eduThe University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California[8][9]) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.[9] Founded in 1868, Berkeley is the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California
California
system
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Amacrine Cell
Amacrine cells (also brachine cells [brachys (short) + ina (fiber)] and shortine cells) are interneurons in the retina.[1] They are named from the Greek roots a– ("non"), makr– ("long") and in– ("fiber"), because of their short neuritic processes. Amacrine cells are inhibitory neurons, and project their dendritic arbors to the inner plexiform layer (IPL), there interacting with retinal ganglion cells and/or bipolar cells.[2]Contents1 Structure1.1 Types 1.2 Organization2 Function 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit] Amacrine cells operate at the inner nuclear layer (also called stratum nucleares internum) (INL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and retinal ganglion cells form synapses. There are at least 33 different subtypes of amacrine cells based just on their dendrite morphology and stratification
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Zebrafish
The zebrafish ( Danio
Danio
rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.[2] Native to the Himalayan region, it is a popular aquarium fish, frequently sold under the trade name zebra danio[3] (and thus often called a "tropical fish" although not native to the tropics). The zebrafish is also an important and widely used vertebrate model organism in scientific research
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Morphology (biology)
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.[1] This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern, size), i.e. external morphology (or eidonomy), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology (or anatomy). This is in contrast to physiology, which deals primarily with function
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Excitatory Postsynaptic Current
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential. This temporary depolarization of postsynaptic membrane potential, caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell, is a result of opening ligand-gated ion channels. These are the opposite of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), which usually result from the flow of negative ions into the cell or positive ions out of the cell. EPSPs can also result from a decrease in outgoing positive charges, while IPSPs are sometimes caused by an increase in positive charge outflow. The flow of ions that causes an EPSP is an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). EPSPs, like IPSPs, are graded (i.e. they have an additive effect). When multiple EPSPs occur on a single patch of postsynaptic membrane, their combined effect is the sum of the individual EPSPs
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Photoreceptor Cell
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of sensory neuron found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction. The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. There are currently three known types of photoreceptor cells in mammalian eyes: rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight
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Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
University
University
is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[5] His $7 million bequest (~$150 million in 2017 dollars)—of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States
United States
at that time.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876,[7] led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S
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Retinal Pigment Epithelium
The pigmented layer of retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells.[1][2]Contents1 History 2 Anatomy 3 Function 4 Pathology 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Choroid
Choroid
dissected from a calf's eye, showing black RPE and iridescent blue tapetum lucidumThe RPE was known in the 18th and 19th centuries as the pigmentum nigrum, referring to the observatio
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Pipette
A pipette (sometimes spelled pipet) is a laboratory tool commonly used in chemistry, biology and medicine to transport a measured volume of liquid, often as a media dispenser. Pipettes come in several designs for various purposes with differing levels of accuracy and precision, from single piece glass pipettes to more complex adjustable or electronic pipettes. Many pipette types work by creating a partial vacuum above the liquid-holding chamber and selectively releasing this vacuum to draw up and dispense liquid
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Neuron
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell (biology)cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via specialized connections called synapses. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are many types of specialized neurons. Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons
respond to one particular type of stimulus such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain
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Electrophysiological
Electrophysiology
Electrophysiology
(from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber" [see the etymology of "electron"]; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage changes or electric current or manipulations on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and, in particular, action potential activity. Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system, such as electroencephalography, may also be referred to as electrophysiological recordings.[1] They are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring."Current Clamp" is a common technique in electrophysiology
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