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Frank Hubbard
Frank Twombly Hubbard (May 15, 1920 – February 25, 1976) was an American harpsichord maker, a pioneer in the revival of historical methods of harpsichord building.Contents1 Student days 2 Historical harpsichords 3 Hubbard's thoughts on the harpsichord 4 Books 5 See also 6 Sources 7 External linksStudent days[edit] Born in New York, Hubbard studied English literature
English literature
at Harvard, graduating with AB, 1942 and AM, 1947. One of his friends was William Dowd, who had an interest in early instruments, and together they constructed a clavichord. This connection, with his interest as an amateur violinist in violin making and the location of his library reading stall near the stacks holding books on musical instruments, led to Hubbard's interest in the historic harpsichord. While pursuing graduate study at Harvard, Hubbard and Dowd both decided to leave to pursue instrument-making
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Francophile
A Francophile
Francophile
(Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people. That affinity may include France
France
itself or its history, language, cuisine, literature, etc. The term "Francophile" can be contrasted with Francophobe (or Gallophobe), someone who dislikes all that is French. Francophile
Francophile
restaurant in Münster, Germany Francophilia
Francophilia
often arises in former French colonies, where the elite spoke French and adopted many French habits
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Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach[a] (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos
Brandenburg Concertos
and the Goldberg Variations, and vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.[2] The Bach family
Bach family
already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. Having become an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother, after which he continued his musical formation in Lüneburg
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Anglophile
An Anglophile
Anglophile
is a person who admires England, its people, and its culture.[1] Its antonym is Anglophobe.[2] The word's roots come from the Latin
Latin
<

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Wellesley, Massachusetts
Wellesley /ˈwɛlzliː/ is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. Wellesley is part of Greater Boston. The population was 27,982 at the time of the 2010 census.[3] In 2008, Wellesley had the 3rd highest median household and family incomes in all of Massachusetts
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Early Music
Early music is music, especially Western art music, composed prior to the Classical era.[1][not in citation given] The term generally comprises Medieval music
Medieval music
(500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music
Baroque music
(1600–1760), and, according to some authorities such as Kennedy (who excludes Baroque),[1] Ancient music
Ancient music
(before 500 AD)
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Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
(30 May 1928  – 16 January 2012)[1] was a Dutch keyboard player, conductor, musicologist, teacher and editor. He was a leading figure in the movement to perform music on period instruments. Leonhardt professionally played many instruments, including the harpsichord, pipe organ, claviorganum (a combination of harpsichord and organ), clavichord and fortepiano. He also conducted orchestras and choruses.Contents1 Biography 2 Career 3 Influence and awards 4 Bibliography 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
was born in 's-Graveland, North Holland
North Holland
and studied organ and harpsichord from 1947 to 1950 with Eduard Müller at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
in Basel. In 1950, he made his debut as a harpsichordist in Vienna, where he studied musicology
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Unmeasured Prelude
Unmeasured or non-measured prelude is a prelude in which the duration of each note is left to the performer. Typically the term is used for 17th century harpsichord compositions that are written without rhythm or metre indications, although various composers of the Classical music era were composing small preludes for woodwind instruments using non-measured notation well into the 19th century. The form resurfaced in the aleatory music of the 20th century, where various other aspects of performance are also left to free interpretation. Unmeasured preludes for lute[edit] The first unmeasured preludes appeared during the Renaissance era. They were short improvised compositions for lute, usually performed as an introduction to another piece of music or to test the instrument. Later unmeasured lute preludes retained the improvisatory character of the genre but became more complex and lengthy. Unmeasured preludes flourished into full-fledged compositions by the middle of the 17th century
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Baroque Music
Baroque
Baroque
music (US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a style of Western art music
Western art music
composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.[1] This era followed the Renaissance music
Renaissance music
era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque
Baroque
music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to
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Reed (instrument)
A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument. The reeds of most woodwind instruments are made from Arundo donax
Arundo donax
("Giant cane") or synthetic material; tuned reeds (as in harmonicas and accordions) are made of metal or synthetics. Musical instruments may be classified according to the type and number of reeds used. The earliest types of single-reed instruments used idioglottal reeds, where the vibrating reed is a tongue cut and shaped on the tube of cane. Much later, single-reed instruments started using heteroglottal reeds, where a reed is cut and separated from the tube of cane and attached to a mouthpiece of some sort
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Bell (instrument)
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell (jingle bell). Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze) for its resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials; this depends on the function
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Hamburg
Hamburg
Hamburg
(English: /ˈhæmbɜːrɡ/; German: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] ( listen); locally: [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç] ( listen)), Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg [ˈhambɔːç] ( listen), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Hamburg
(German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg),[5] is the second-largest city of Germany
Germany
as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region
Hamburg Metropolitan Region
which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than 5 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state
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Asin
The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by Amazon.com
Amazon.com
and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization.[1] Usage and structure[edit] Although ASINs used to be unique worldwide, global expansion has changed things so that ASINs are only guaranteed unique within a marketplace.[citation needed] The same product may be referred to by several ASINs though, and different national sites may use a different ASIN for the same product.[citation needed] In general, ASINs are likely to be different between the country sites unless they are for a class of product where the ASIN is based on an externally defined and internationally consistent identifier, such as ISBN
ISBN
for books.[citation needed] Each product sold on Amazon.com
Amazon.com
is given a unique ASIN
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Saxony
The Free State of Saxony[4] (German: Freistaat Sachsen [ˈfʁaɪ̯ʃtaːt ˈzaksn̩]; Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland
Poland
(Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary, Liberec and Ústí nad Labem Regions). Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony
Saxony
is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people. The history of the state of Saxony
Saxony
spans more than a millennium
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Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
(French: [ʒɑ̃filip ʁamo]; (1683-09-25)25 September 1683 – (1764-09-12)12 September 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.[1] He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully
Jean-Baptiste Lully
as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin.[2] Little is known about Rameau's early years, and it was not until the 1720s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony (1722) and also in the following years as a composer of masterpieces for the harpsichord, which circulated throughout Europe. He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests today
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François Couperin
François Couperin
François Couperin
(French: [fʁɑ̃swa kupʁɛ̃]; 10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733[citation needed]) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. He was known as Couperin le Grand ("Couperin the Great") to distinguish him from other members of the musically talented Couperin family.Contents1 Life 2 Works2.1 Organ3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit]Couperin, engraving by Jean Jacques Flipart, 1735, after André Bouys.Couperin was born into one of the best known musical families of Europe. His father Charles was organist at Church Saint-Gervais in Paris, a position previously occupied by Charles's brother Louis Couperin, a highly regarded keyboard virtuoso and composer whose career was cut short by an early death. As a boy, François must have received his first music lessons from his father. Unfortunately, Charles died in 1679
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