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Frank Hubbard
FRANK TWOMBLY HUBBARD (May 15, 1920 – February 25, 1976) was an American harpsichord maker, a pioneer in the revival of historical methods of harpsichord building. CONTENTS * 1 Student days * 2 Historical harpsichords * 3 Hubbard\'s thoughts on the harpsichord * 4 Books * 5 See also * 6 Sources * 7 External links STUDENT DAYSBorn in New York, Hubbard studied English literature
English literature
at Harvard, graduating with AB, 1942 and AM, 1947. One of his friends was William Dowd , who had an interest in early instruments, and together they constructed a clavichord . This connection, with his interest as an amateur violinist in violin making and the location of his library reading stall near the stacks holding books on musical instruments, led to Hubbard's interest in the historic harpsichord. While pursuing graduate study at Harvard, Hubbard and Dowd both decided to leave to pursue instrument-making
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Reed (instrument)
A REED is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument . The reeds of most woodwind instruments are made from Arundo donax ("Giant cane") or synthetic material; tuned reeds (as in harmonicas and accordions ) are made of metal or synthetics. Musical instruments may be classified according to the type and number of reeds used. The earliest types of single-reed instruments used IDIOGLOTTAL REEDS, where the vibrating reed is a tongue cut and shaped on the tube of cane. Much later, single-reed instruments started using HETEROGLOTTAL REEDS, where a reed is cut and separated from the tube of cane and attached to a mouthpiece of some sort. By contrast, in an uncapped double reed instrument (such as the oboe and bassoon), there is no mouthpiece; the two parts of the reed vibrate against one another
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Bell (instrument)
A BELL is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument . Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone , with its sides forming an efficient resonator . The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell. Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze ) for its resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials; this depends on the function. Some small bells such as ornamental bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or ceramic, but large bells such as church, clock and tower bells are normally cast from bell metal
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Bach
JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period . He enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint , harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach\'s compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos
Brandenburg Concertos
, the Goldberg Variations , the Mass in B minor , two Passions , and over three hundred cantatas of which approximately two hundred survive. His music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth. While Bach's abilities as an organist were highly respected during his lifetime, he was not widely recognised as an important composer until a revival of interest in his music during the first half of the 19th century. He is now generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time
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Hamburg
HAMBURG (German pronunciation: ( listen ), local pronunciation ( listen ); Low German /Low Saxon : Hamborg — ( listen )), officially the FREE AND HANSEATIC CITY OF HAMBURG (German : Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg) is the second largest city and a state of Germany , with a population of over 1.7 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg\'s history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League , a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire , a city-state , and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany
Germany
, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten . Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg , the floods , and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids , the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe
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Baroque Music
BAROQUE MUSIC (US : /bəˈroʊk/ or UK : /bəˈrɒk/ ) is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music
Renaissance music
era , and was followed in turn by the Classical era . Baroque
Baroque
music forms a major portion of the "classical music " canon , being nowadays widely studied, performed, and listened to
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Unmeasured Prelude
UNMEASURED or NON-MEASURED PRELUDE is a prelude in which the duration of each note is left to the performer. Typically the term is used for 17th century harpsichord compositions that are written without rhythm or metre indications, although various composers of the Classical music era were composing small preludes for woodwind instruments using non-measured notation well into the 19th century. The form resurfaced in the aleatory music of the 20th century, where various other aspects of performance are also left to free interpretation. UNMEASURED PRELUDES FOR LUTEThe first unmeasured preludes appeared during the Renaissance era. They were short improvised compositions for lute , usually performed as an introduction to another piece of music or to test the instrument. Later unmeasured lute preludes retained the improvisatory character of the genre but became more complex and lengthy. Unmeasured preludes flourished into full-fledged compositions by the middle of the 17th century
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Anglophile
An ANGLOPHILE is a person who admires England
England
, its people, and its culture. Its antonym is Anglophobe . The word's roots come from the Latin
Latin
Anglii , and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
φίλος - philos, "friend." The word Anglophile
Anglophile
was first published in 1864 by Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
in All the Year Round , when he described the Revue des deux Mondes as "an advanced and somewhat 'Anglophile' publication." Though Anglophile
Anglophile
in the strict sense refers to an affinity for the things, people, places and culture of England, it is sometimes used to refer to an affinity for the same attributes of the British Isles
British Isles
more generally; though the rarely used word Britophile is a more accurate term
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Wellesley, Massachusetts
WELLESLEY /ˈwɛlzliː/ is a town in Norfolk County , Massachusetts , United States. Wellesley is part of Greater Boston . The population was 27,982 at the time of the 2010 census. Wellesley has the 3rd highest median household and family incomes in all of Massachusetts. It is best known as the home of Wellesley College
Wellesley College
, Babson College
Babson College
, and a campus of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Community College
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Early Music
EARLY MUSIC is music , especially Western art music , composed prior to the Classical era. The term generally comprises Medieval music (500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music (1600–1760), and, according to some authorities such as Kennedy (who excludes Baroque), Ancient music
Ancient music
(before 500 AD). According to the UK's National Centre for Early Music
Music
, the term "early music" refers to both a repertory (European music written between 1250 and 1750 embracing Medieval, Renaissance and the Baroque) – and a historically informed approach to the performance of that music
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Gustav Leonhardt
GUSTAV LEONHARDT (30 May 1928 – 16 January 2012) was a renowned Dutch keyboard player, conductor , musicologist, teacher and editor. He was a leading figure in the movement to perform music on period instruments . Leonhardt professionally played many instruments, including the harpsichord , pipe organ , claviorganum (a combination of harpsichord and organ), clavichord and fortepiano . He also conducted orchestras and choruses. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Career * 3 Influence and awards * 4 Bibliography * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHY Gustav Leonhardt
Gustav Leonhardt
was born in \ 's-Graveland , North Holland
North Holland
and studied organ and harpsichord from 1947 to 1950 with Eduard Müller at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
Schola Cantorum Basiliensis
in Basel
Basel

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Saxony
The FREE STATE OF SAXONY (German : der Freistaat Sachsen ; Upper Sorbian : Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany
Germany
, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg , Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt , Thuringia , and Bavaria , as well as the countries of Poland
Poland
(Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships ) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary , Liberec and Ústí nad Labem Regions ). Its capital is Dresden , and its largest city is Leipzig
Leipzig
. Saxony
Saxony
is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people. Located in the middle of a large, formerly all German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony
Saxony
spans more than a millennium
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Jean-Philippe Rameau
JEAN-PHILIPPE RAMEAU (French: ; (1683-09-25)25 September 1683 – 12 September 1764(1764-09-12)) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin
François Couperin
. Little is known about Rameau's early years, and it was not until the 1720s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony (1722) and also in the following years as a composer of masterpieces for the harpsichord, which circulated throughout Europe. He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests today. His debut, Hippolyte et Aricie (1733), caused a great stir and was fiercely attacked by the supporters of Lully's style of music for its revolutionary use of harmony
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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ASIN
ASIN THOTTUMKAL (born 26 October 1985), known mononymously as ASIN, is a former Indian actress and trained Bharathanatyam dancer. She has received three Filmfare Awards . She began her acting career in the South Indian film industry , but now appears predominantly in Bollywood films. She speaks eight languages, and dubs her own films. She is the only Malayali actress, other than Padmini , to have dubbed in her own voice for all her films, irrespective of language. Asin
Asin
has been referred to as the "Queen of Kollywood " by online portals in 2007. She is a member of the Bollywood 100 Crore Club
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Michael Steinberg (music Critic)
CARL MICHAEL ALFRED STEINBERG (4 October 1928 – 26 July 2009) was an American music critic , musicologist , and writer best known, according to San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Chronicle
music critic Joshua Kosman, for "the illuminating, witty and often deeply personal notes he wrote for the San Francisco Symphony's program booklets, beginning in 1979." He contributed several entries to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , wrote articles for music journals and magazine, notes for CDs, and published a number of books on music, both collected published annotations and new writings. LIFE AND CAREERBorn in Breslau , Germany (now Wrocław
Wrocław
, Poland
Poland
), Steinberg left Germany in 1939 as one of the Kindertransport
Kindertransport
child refugees and spent four years in England
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