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Franco-Prussian War
Baden
Baden
Bavaria
Bavaria
Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt FRENCH REPUBLIC b GERMAN EMPIRE d COMMANDERS AND LEADERS * Napoleon III
Napoleon III
(POW) * F. A. Bazaine (POW) * Louis Jules Trochu
Louis Jules Trochu
* Patrice de MacMahon (POW) * Léon Gambetta * William I * Otto von Bismarck * Helmuth von Moltke * Crown Prince Friedrich * Prince Friedrich Karl * Karl F
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Unification Of Germany
The UNIFICATION OF GERMANY into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War . Unofficially, the _de facto _ transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organization of states had been developing for some time through alliances formal and informal between princely rulers—but in fits and starts; self-interests of the various parties hampered the process over nearly a century of autocratic experimentation, beginning in the era of the Napoleonic Wars , which saw the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (1806), and the subsequent rise of German nationalism . Unification exposed tensions due to religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences among the inhabitants of the new nation, suggesting that 1871 only represented one moment in a continuum of the larger unification processes
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Battle Of Spicheren
The BATTLE OF SPICHEREN, also known as the BATTLE OF FORBACH, was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War . The German victory compelled the French to withdraw to the defenses of Metz
Metz
. The Battle of Spicheren, on 5 August, was the second of three critical French defeats. Moltke had originally planned to keep Bazaine 's army on the Saar river until he could attack it with the 2nd Army in front and the 1st Army on its left flank, while the 3rd Army closed towards the rear. The aging General von Steinmetz made an overzealous, unplanned move, leading the 1st Army south from his position on the Moselle
Moselle
. He moved straight toward the town of Spicheren, cutting off Prince Frederick Charles from his forward cavalry units in the process. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Prelude * 3 Battle * 4 Aftermath * 4.1 Analysis * 5 Commemoration * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 References * 9 External links BACKGROUNDMoltke was pressing on with the concentration of the Prussian armies. His forces now formed two wings
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Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
PIERRE-GEORGES JEANNIOT (1848–1934) was a Swiss
Swiss
-French Impressionist painter , designer , watercolorist, and engraver who was born in Geneva, Switzerland
Geneva, Switzerland
, and died in France. His work often depicts the modern life in Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 List of honours * 3 Recent exhibitions * 4 Museums * 5 Selected works * 6 Publications * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHY The Ritz garden café, Paris, France
France
The artistic education of Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
began with his father, Pierre-Alexandre Jeanniot (1826–1892), a longtime director of l'École des Beaux-Arts of Dijon
Dijon
, France. Nevertheless, Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
started out pursuing a military career, as an infantry officer (1866–1881), but he never ceased drawing. He was known for the first time in 1872 at the art exhibition Salon de Paris , where he presented a watercolor painting called Intérieur de forêt. The next year he presented the painting Le Vernan à Nass-sous-Sainte-Anne. From then on he was a regular contributor to the Salon de Paris, where he presented new works with views of Toulouse, Paris, Troyes, the edges of the Seine, and some portraits
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Battle Of Mars-La-Tour
The BATTLE OF MARS-LA-TOUR was fought on 16 August 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War , near the town of Mars-La-Tour in northeast France
France
. Two Prussian corps encountered the entire French Army of the Rhine in a meeting engagement and, surprisingly, successfully forced the Army of the Rhine to retreat into the fortress of Metz
Metz
. A cavalry patrol, the 1st Squadron of 1st Hanoverian Dragoon Regiment No. 9, led by Rittmeister Oskar von Blumenthal , discovered that 130,000 French troops, after suffering several defeats at the front, were attempting to escape from Metz
Metz
to join with French forces at Verdun . This intelligence prompted General Prince Frederick Charles to send, on 16 August 1870, a grossly outnumbered group of 30,000 men of the advanced III Corps
Corps
(of the 2nd Army) under General Constantin von Alvensleben with orders to cut them off. They located the French Army near Vionville, east of Mars-la-Tour. Despite being outnumbered more than four to one, III Corps
Corps
routed the French and captured Vionville, blocking any further escape attempts to the west. Once prevented from retreat, the French inside Metz
Metz
had no choice but to fight a battle that would see the last major cavalry engagement in Western Europe
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Anton Von Werner
ANTON ALEXANDER VON WERNER (9 May 1843 – 4 January 1915) was a German painter known for his history paintings of notable political and military events in the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
. One of the most famous painters of his time, he is regarded a main protagonist of the Wilhelmine Period . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Works * 4 Proteges and students * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYWerner was born in Frankfurt (Oder)
Frankfurt (Oder)
in the Prussian Province of Brandenburg , the son of a carpenter. His family originally came from East Prussia
East Prussia
and was ennobled (von) in 1701. He began an apprenticeship as a decorative painter in 1857 and from 1860 onwards studied painting at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin
Berlin
. One year later, he pursued his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe , where he studied with Johann Wilhelm Schirmer
Johann Wilhelm Schirmer
, Ludwig Des Coudres , Adolf Schroedter , and Karl Friedrich Lessing . In Karlsruhe, Werner met with artists like Eduard Devrient , Johannes Brahms and Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
, Paul Heyse , and the Norwegian painter Hans Gude
Hans Gude

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Battle Of Sedan
The BATTLE OF SEDAN was fought during the Franco–Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia
Prussia
and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government . The 130,000 strong French Army of Châlons , commanded by Marshal Patrice de MacMahon and accompanied by Napoleon III, was attempting to lift the Siege of Metz
Metz
, only to be caught by the Prussian Meuse Army and defeated at the Battle of Beaumont . The Meuse Army and the Prussian Third Army, commanded by Field-Marshal Helmuth von Moltke and accompanied by Prussian King Wilhelm I and Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck , cornered MacMahon's army at Sedan in a massive encirclement battle. Marshal MacMahon was wounded during the attacks and command passed to General Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot , until it was taken over by General Emmanuel Félix de Wimpffen
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Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe De Neuville
ALPHONSE DE NEUVILLE (31 May 1835 – 18 May 1885) was a French Academic painter who studied under Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
. His dramatic and intensely patriotic subjects illustrated episodes from the Franco-Prussian War , the Crimean War , the Zulu War and portraits of soldiers. Some of his works have been collected by the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and by the Metropolitan Museum in New York . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Illustrator and military artist * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EARLY LIFEBorn Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe Deneuville to wealthy parents at Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
, Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
, earned his degree of bachelier ès-lettres, and in spite of family opposition, he entered (1856) the naval school at Lorient
Lorient
; it was there that his artistic instincts started. He was discouraged by several painters of repute, but he was admitted to work in the studio of François-Edouard Picot ; he did not remain there long. He was painting by himself when he produced his first picture, The Fifth Battalion of Chasseurs at the Gervais Battery (Malakoff)
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Battle Of Bazeilles
The BATTLE OF BAZEILLES was fought on 1 September 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War as a portion of the larger Battle of Sedan
Battle of Sedan
and was one of the first battles to feature modern urban warfare tactics. It took place in Bazeilles , France
France
, a small village in the department of Ardennes near Sedan , and involved a force of Bavarian soldiers battling against French marines and partisans . The battle was, in effect, an ambush of the Bavarians (who were allies of the Prussians), by a small detachment of the "Blue Division " Troupes de marine (known also as marsouins), under the command of General de Vassoigne . Marsouin snipers , along with local guerrillas, fired on the Bavarian troops using quick-firing Chassepot breech-loading rifles . Although outnumbered ten to one, the French held the village until Napoleon III
Napoleon III
gave orders to withdraw. A small group under commander Arsene Lambert remained in the last house on the road to Sedan, the Auberge Bourgerie, fighting to the last bullet in order to cover the retreat. After seven hours of conflict, the Bavarian troops took the village, and the captured Franc-tireur partisans, along with other civilians who were considered unlawful combatants , were later executed
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille , Lyon , Lille , Nice , Toulouse and Bordeaux . During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls , a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome , which held Gaul until 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region and formed the Kingdom of France
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Rhine Province
The RHINE PROVINCE (German : _Rheinprovinz_), also known as RHENISH PRUSSIA (_Rheinpreußen_) or synonymous with the Rhineland (_Rheinland_), was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia , within the German Reich , from 1822 to 1946. It was created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg . Its capital was Koblenz and in 1939 it had 8 million inhabitants. The Province of Hohenzollern was militarily associated with the Oberpräsident of the Rhine Province. The Rhine Province bounded on the north by the Netherlands , on the east by the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau , and the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt , on the southeast by the Palatinate (a district of the Kingdom of Bavaria ), on the south and southwest by Lorraine , and on the west by Luxembourg , Belgium and the Netherlands. The small exclave district of Wetzlar , wedged between the grand duchy states Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Darmstadt was also part of the Rhine Province. The principality of Birkenfeld , on the other hand, was an enclave of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg , a separate state of the German Empire
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Second French Empire
The SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE (French: _Le second empire français_) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic , in France. CONTENTS * 1 Rule of Napoleon III * 2 History * 2.1 Coup of 1851 * 2.2 Early reign * 2.3 Freedom of the press * 2.4 The _Union libérale_ * 2.5 Rise of Prussia * 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes * 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 * 2.8 End of the Empire * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 6.1 Surveys * 6.2 Politics * 6.3 Military and diplomatic * 6.4 Social and economic * 6.5 Historiography * 7 External links RULE OF NAPOLEON III Napoléon III Imperial Standard of Napoléon III The structure of the French government during the Second Empire was little changed from the First . But Emperor Napoleon III stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government. If government was to guide the people toward domestic justice and external peace, it was his role as emperor, holding his power by universal male suffrage and representing all of the people, to function as supreme leader and safeguard the achievements of the revolution
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French Third Republic
The FRENCH THIRD REPUBLIC (French : _La Troisième République_, sometimes written as _La IIIe République_) was the system of government adopted in France
France
from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, until 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. It came to an end on 10 July 1940. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in 1870. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace
Alsace
(keeping the Belfort district) and Lorraine
Lorraine
(the northeastern part, i.e. present-day _département de la Moselle_), social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris
Paris
Commune . The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy and who should be awarded the throne caused those talks to stall. Thus, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government , instead became the permanent government of France. The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : _Deutsches Kaiserreich_, officially _ Deutsches Reich _) was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic . The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families . This included four kingdoms , six grand duchies , five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities , three free Hanseatic cities , and one imperial territory . Although Prussia became one of several kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory, thus remaining a powerhouse with a major say in imperial affairs. Its influence also helped define modern German culture . After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized , with particular strengths in coal , iron (and later steel ), chemicals, and railways . In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country
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Treaty Of Frankfurt (1871)
The TREATY OF FRANKFURT (French : Traité de Francfort; German : Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War . CONTENTS * 1 Summary * 2 Factors that influenced the boundary * 2.1 Strategy * 2.2 Politics * 2.3 Nationalism * 2.4 Economy * 2.5 Legacy * 3 Notes * 4 References SUMMARYThe treaty did the following: * Established the frontier between the French Third Republic and the German Empire
German Empire
, which involved the ceding of 1,694 villages and cities under French control to Germany in: * Alsace
Alsace
: the French departments of Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin , except for the city of Belfort
Belfort
and its territory ; * Lorraine : the French department of Moselle , one-third of the department of Meurthe , including the cities of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg , and the arrondissements Saales and Schirmeck in the department of Vosges . Elsaß-Lothringen
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Alsace-Lorraine
The IMPERIAL TERRITORY OF ALSACE-LORRAINE (German : _Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen_ or _Elsass-Lothringen_) was a territory created by the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace
Alsace
and the Moselle
Moselle
department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War . The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine
Rhine
Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains . The Lorraine section was in the upper Moselle valley to the north of the Vosges. The territory was made up of 93% of Alsace
Alsace
and 26% of Lorraine ; the remaining portions of these regions continued to be part of France. For historical reasons, specific legal dispositions are still applied in the territory in the form of a "local law ". In relation to its special legal status, since its reversion to France
France
following World War I , the territory has been referred to administratively as ALSACE-MOSELLE
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