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Franco-Prussian War
Baden
Baden
Bavaria
Bavaria
Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt FRENCH REPUBLIC b GERMAN EMPIRE d COMMANDERS AND LEADERS * Napoleon III
Napoleon III
(POW) * F. A. Bazaine (POW) * Louis Jules Trochu
Louis Jules Trochu
* Patrice de MacMahon (POW) * Léon Gambetta * William I * Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
* Helmuth von Moltke * Crown Prince Friedrich * Prince Friedrich Karl * Karl F
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Prisoner Of War
A PRISONER OF WAR (POW, POW, PW, P/W, WP, PSW, ENEMY PRISONER OF WAR (EPW) or "MISSING-CAPTURED" ) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant , who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict . The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field (releasing and repatriating them in an orderly manner after hostilities), demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes , exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or even conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs
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Pierre-Georges Jeanniot
PIERRE-GEORGES JEANNIOT (1848–1934) was a Swiss -French Impressionist painter , designer , watercolorist, and engraver who was born in Geneva, Switzerland , and died in France. His work often depicts the modern life in Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 List of honours * 3 Recent exhibitions * 4 Museums * 5 Selected works * 6 Publications * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHY The Ritz garden café, Paris, France The artistic education of Pierre-Georges Jeanniot began with his father, Pierre-Alexandre Jeanniot (1826–1892), a longtime director of l'École des Beaux-Arts of Dijon , France. Nevertheless, Pierre-Georges Jeanniot started out pursuing a military career, as an infantry officer (1866–1881), but he never ceased drawing. He was known for the first time in 1872 at the art exhibition Salon de Paris , where he presented a watercolor painting called Intérieur de forêt
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Rhine Province
The RHINE PROVINCE (German : Rheinprovinz), also known as RHENISH PRUSSIA (Rheinpreußen) or synonymous with the Rhineland (Rheinland), was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia , within the German Reich , from 1822 to 1946. It was created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg . Its capital was Koblenz and in 1939 it had 8 million inhabitants. The Province of Hohenzollern was militarily associated with the Oberpräsident of the Rhine Province
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Grand Duchy Of Hesse
The GRAND DUCHY OF HESSE AND BY RHINE (German : Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the GRAND DUCHY OF HESSE (German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy
Duchy
which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871. Before 1866, its northern neighbour was its former sister Landgraviate , since 1803 an Electorate , of Hesse-Kassel – for this reason, this state was sometimes colloquially known as HESSE-DARMSTADT
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Landwehr
LANDWEHR, or LANDESWEHR, is a German language
German language
term used in referring to certain national armies , or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to large-scale, low-strength fortifications. In German, the word means "defence of the country"; but the term as applied to an insurrectional militia is very ancient, and lantveri are mentioned in Baluzii Capitularia , as quoted in Hallam\'s Middle Ages, i. 262, 10th edition. The English term "home guard " may possibly derive from an attempt to translate the term landwehr, the earliest unit calling itself "home guard" being formed by German immigrants in Missouri in the events leading up to the American Civil War
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Kingdom Of Württemberg
The KINGDOM OF WüRTTEMBERG (German : Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
. The kingdom was a continuation of the Duchy of Württemberg
Duchy of Württemberg
, which existed from 1495 to 1805. Prior to 1495, Württemberg was a County in the former Duchy of Swabia
Duchy of Swabia
, which had dissolved after the death of Duke Conradin
Conradin
in 1268. The borders of the Kingdom of Württemberg, as defined in 1813, lay between 47°34' and 49°35' north and 8°15' and 10°30' east. The greatest distance north to south comprised 225 kilometres (140 mi) and the greatest east to west was 160 kilometres (99 mi). The border had a total length of 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi) and the total area of the state was 19,508 square kilometres (7,532 sq mi)
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Kingdom Of Bavaria
The KINGDOM OF BAVARIA (German : Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris , in which Bavaria
Bavaria
ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
to the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
while receiving Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
and Würzburg
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Grand Duchy Of Baden
The GRAND DUCHY OF BADEN (German : Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest of German Empire
German Empire
on the east bank of the Rhine
Rhine
. It existed between 1806 and 1918. It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate
Margraviate
of Baden
Baden
and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It then became the much-enlarged Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Baden through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1803–06 and was a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, remaining a Grand Duchy
Duchy
until 1918 when it became part of the Weimar Republic as the Republic of Baden
Republic of Baden

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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA (German : Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia
Prussia
, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, where its capital was Berlin
Berlin
. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Prince Frederick Charles Of Prussia
PRINCE FRIEDRICH CARL NICOLAUS OF PRUSSIA (20 March 1828 – 15 June 1885) was the son of Prince Charles of Prussia (1801–1883) and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877). Prince Frederick Charles was a grandson of King Frederick William III of Prussia and a nephew of Frederick William IV and William I . He was born at Schloss Klein in Berlin
Berlin
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family and Children * 3 Ancestry * 4 Portrayal in media * 5 References BIOGRAPHYFrom 1842 to 1846, Frederick Charles was under the military tutelage of then major Albrecht von Roon , who accompanied the Prince to the University of Bonn in 1846. After his studies, the Prince served as a captain on Wrangel 's staff during the Schleswig campaign of 1848. Promoted to major on the general staff, he partook in a campaign in Baden
Baden
during which he was wounded
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Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe De Neuville
ALPHONSE DE NEUVILLE (31 May 1835 – 18 May 1885) was a French Academic
Academic
painter who studied under Eugène Delacroix . His dramatic and intensely patriotic subjects illustrated episodes from the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
, the Crimean War
Crimean War
, the Zulu War and portraits of soldiers. Some of his works have been collected by the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and by the Metropolitan Museum in New York
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Battle Of Borny–Colombey
The BATTLE OF BORNY–COLOMBEY (August 14, 1870) was a minor battle of the Franco–Prussian War . It saw the escape route of the French army under François Bazaine blocked when they encountered the First Army under von Steinmetz . The outcome of the battle itself was indecisive though saw the French make good their escape to Metz
Metz
. As most of the early battles of the war, Borny was one that neither side had planned or wanted. For the French, the battle had dire consequences as they neglected to use their numerical superiority to force a passage and it delayed the Army's retreat out of Metz
Metz
for twelve precious hours. This gave the Prussians the time to bring up their Second army under Prince Frederick Charles and assured that after the battles fought in the following days (Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte ) France's premier army would be trapped at Metz
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Louis Jules Trochu
Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
III (Head of State) Charles Cousin-Montauban (Prime Minister) SUCCEEDED BY Adolphe Thiers
Adolphe Thiers
( President of France
President of France
) Jules Dufaure (Chief of Government) PERSONAL DETAILS BORN (1815-03-12)12 March 1815 Le Palais , France
France
DIED 7 October 1896(1896-10-07) (aged 81) Tours
Tours
, France
France
NATIONALITY French LOUIS JULES TROCHU (French pronunciation: ​ ; 12 March 1815 – 7 October 1896) was a French military leader and politician. He served as President of the Government of National Defense —France's de facto head of state —from 4 September 1870 until his resignation on 22 January 1871 (although he retained the role symbolically until the legislative elections of February 1871)
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Garde Mobile
The GARDE MOBILE ("Mobile Guard"; also called GARDE NATIONALE MOBILE though it had nothing to do with the Garde nationale ) was intended to be the body which would in effect conscript all who had been able to avoid military service. The Garde would also take in all conscripts on completion of their army service. Napoleon III took up the idea and announced on 12 December 1866 that the Garde Mobile
Garde Mobile
would eventually attain a strength of 400,000 troops. Its members were colloquially known as "Moblots". It origins lay in the crises that led up to the Franco-Prussian War , when Adolphe Niel , Minister of War for France under Emperor Napoleon III , attempted to bolster French military power creating a service which would provide reserves to be added to the regular French army
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