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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (République française ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France
France
is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris
Paris
, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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Christian
A CHRISTIAN ( /ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ ( listen ) or /ˈkrɪstjən/ ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity , an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ . "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek word Christ ós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach . While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus
Jesus
has a unique significance. The term "Christian" is also used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all that is noble, and good, and Christ-like." According to a 2011 Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians
Christians
around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni Islam 10–13% Shia Islam
Shia Islam
15–20% Non-denominational Islam ~1% Ahmadiyya ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the proceeds to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to use those dollars directly in purchasing the market basket of goods. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Pakistani for a person from Pakistan
Pakistan
, Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Cadastre
A CADASTRE (also spelled CADASTER), using a CADASTRAL SURVEY or CADASTRAL MAP, is a comprehensive register of the real estate or real property 's metes-and-bounds of a country. In most countries, legal systems have developed around the original administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions and location of land parcels described in legal documentation. The cadastre is a fundamental source of data in disputes and lawsuits between landowners. In the United States
United States
, Cadastral Survey within the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) maintains records of all public land s. Such surveys often require detailed investigation of the history of land use, legal accounts, and other documents
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a Senate
Senate
, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller, and often has more restricted power, than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the UK's House of Lords , Canada's Senate , India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States
United States
Senate
Senate

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Proclamation Of The Abolition Of The Monarchy
During the French Revolution
French Revolution
, the PROCLAMATION OF THE ABOLITION OF THE MONARCHY (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention
National Convention
of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792. CONTENTS * 1 Prelude * 2 Proposition for abolition * 3 End of an era * 4 References * 5 External links PRELUDEThe Convention's députés were instructed to put an end to the crisis that had broken out since the prevented flight to Varennes of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
(June 1791) and the bloody capture of the Tuileries
Tuileries
(10 August 1792)
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Irreligion
IRRELIGION (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion . Irreligion may include some forms of theism , depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism . According to the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, only 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. . According to their projections, the non-religious, though temporarily increasing, will ultimately decline significantly by 2050 because of lower reproductive rates and ageing
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Buddhist
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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European Economic Community
The EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union
European Union
(EU) in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (EC). In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist. The Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union , among its six founding members : Belgium
Belgium
, France
France
, Italy
Italy
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and West Germany
West Germany

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Treaty Of Verdun
The TREATY OF VERDUN, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious , who was the son of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
. The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse , ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Provisions * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links BACKGROUNDFollowing Charlemagne's death, Louis was made ruler of the Carolingian empire . During his reign, he divided the empire so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greater rule of their father. Lothair I
Lothair I
was given the title of emperor but because of several re-divisions by his father and the resulting revolts, he became much less powerful
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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 192 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is an example of a unitary state
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