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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille , Lyon , Lille , Nice , Toulouse and Bordeaux . During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls , a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome , which held Gaul until 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region and formed the Kingdom of France
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Lafrance (other)
LAFRANCE, LAFRANCE, LA FRANCE and other variations may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Places * 2 People * 3 Other uses * 4 See also PLACES * France
France
, a country * Pont-Lafrance, New Brunswick , Canada, a former municipality which is now part of Grand Tracadie–Sheila * La France, South Carolina , United States * Maison Lafrance , New Brunswick, Canada, a residence at the University of Moncton * La France
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Flag Of France
The FLAG OF FRANCE (French : Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side ), white , and red . It is known to English speakers as the FRENCH TRICOLOUR or simply the TRICOLOUR (French : TRICOLORE). The royal government used many flags, the best known being a blue shield and gold fleur-de-lis (the Royal Arms of France
Royal Arms of France
) on a white background, or state flag. Early in the French Revolution , the Paris militia, which played a prominent role in the storming of the Bastille , wore a cockade of blue and red, the city's traditional colours. According to French general Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
, white was the "ancient French colour" and was added to the militia cockade to create a tricolour, or national, cockade. This cockade became part of the uniform of the National Guard , which succeeded the militia and was commanded by Lafayette. The colours and design of the cockade are the basis of the Tricolour flag, adopted in 1790. The only difference was that the 1790 flag's colours were reversed. A modified design by Jacques-Louis David was adopted in 1794. The royal white flag was used during the Bourbon restoration
Bourbon restoration
from 1815 to 1830; the tricolour was brought back after the July Revolution
July Revolution
and has been used ever since 1830
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National Emblem Of France
The French Republic currently uses two emblems. One has been a symbol of France since 1912, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms . It appears on the cover of French passports and was adopted originally by the French Foreign Ministry as a symbol for use by diplomatic and consular missions using a design by the sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain. In 1953, France received a request from the United Nations for a copy of a national coat of arms to be displayed alongside the coats of arms of other member states in its assembly chamber. An interministerial commission requested Robert Louis (1902–1965), heraldic artist, to produce a version of the Chaplain design. This did not, however, constitute an adoption of an official coat of arms by the Republic. It consists of: * A wide shield with, on the one end a lion-head and on the other an eagle-head, bearing a monogram "RF" standing for _République Française_ (French Republic ). * A olive branch symbolises peace. * An oak branch symbolises perennity or wisdom. * The fasces , a symbol associated with the exercise of justice (the bundle of rods and an axe were carried by Roman lictors )
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Liberté, égalité, Fraternité
_LIBERTé, éGALITé, FRATERNITé_ (pronounced ), French for "liberty , equality , fraternity ", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti , and is an example of a tripartite motto . Although it finds its origins in the French Revolution , it was then only one motto among others and was not institutionalized until the Third Republic at the end of the 19th century. Debates concerning the compatibility and order of the three terms began at the same time as the Revolution. It is also the motto of the Grand Orient de France
France
and the Grande Loge de France
France
. CONTENTS * 1 Origins during the French Revolution * 2 19th century * 2.1 1848 Revolution * 2.2 Paris Commune and Third Republic * 3 20th century * 4 Other nations * 5 Culture * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links ORIGINS DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION _ Text displayed on a placard announcing the sale of biens nationaux _ (1793). Soon after the Revolution, the motto was sometimes written as "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death". The "death" part was later dropped for being too strongly associated with the Reign of Terror
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La Marseillaise
"LA MARSEILLAISE" (French pronunciation: ​ ) is the national anthem of France . The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, and was originally titled "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin" ("War Song for the Rhine Army"). The Marseillaise was a revolutionary song, an anthem to freedom, a patriotic call to mobilize all the citizens and an exhortation to fight against tyranny and foreign invasion. The French National Convention adopted it as the Republic\'s anthem in 1795. It acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching to the capital. The song is the first example of the "European march" anthemic style. The anthem's evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Musical * 2 Lyrics * 2.1 Additional verses * 3 Notable arrangements * 4 Quotations in other musical works * 5 Notable use in other media * 6 Historical use in Russia * 7 Criticism and controversy * 8 See also * 9 Footnotes * 10 Further reading * 11 External links HISTORY Play media Belgian singer Jean Noté singing "La Marseillaise" in 1907
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Metropolitan France
METROPOLITAN FRANCE (French : _ France métropolitaine_ or _la Métropole_), also known as EUROPEAN FRANCE, is the part of France in Europe . It comprises mainland France and nearby islands in the Atlantic Ocean , the English Channel (French : _la Manche_), and the Mediterranean Sea , including Corsica . Overseas France (_la France d'outre-mer_) is the collective name for the part of France outside Europe: French overseas regions (_départements et régions d'outre-mer_ or _DROM_), territories (_territoires d'outre-mer_ or _TOM_), collectivities (_collectivités d'outre-mer_ or _COM_), and the sui generis collectivity (_collectivité sui generis_) of New Caledonia . Metropolitan France and Overseas France together form the French Republic . Metropolitan France accounts for 82.2% of the land territory, 3.3% of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and 95.9% of the population of the French Republic . The five overseas regions (departments )— Martinique , Guadeloupe , Réunion , French Guiana , and Mayotte —have the same political status as metropolitan France's regions
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency . The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome . The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities , were the Inner Six ; Belgium , France , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and West Germany
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Adélie Land
ADéLIE LAND (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
. It stretches from a coastline area along the Great Southern Ocean inland all the way to the South Pole
South Pole
. This territory is claimed by France
France
as one of five districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands , although most countries have not given this their diplomatic recognition . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Research stations * 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links GEOGRAPHY Adélie Land
Adélie Land
lies between 136° E (near Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12′S 136°11′E / 66.200°S 136.183°E / -66.200; 136.183 ) and 142° E (near Point Alden at 66°48′S 142°02′E / 66.800°S 142.033°E / -66.800; 142.033 ), with a shore length of about 350 kilometres (220 mi) and with its inland part extending as a sector of a circle about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) toward the South Pole
South Pole
. Adélie Land
Adélie Land
has border with the Australian Antarctic Territory both on the east and on the west, namely on Clarie Land (part of Wilkes Land
Wilkes Land
) in the west, and George V Land in the east
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (locally ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of France
France
. It has an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,229,621 in 2015 within its administrative limits. The city is both a commune and department and forms the centre and headquarters of the Île-de- France
France
, or Paris
Paris
Region, which has an area of 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles) and a population in 2016 of 12,142,802, comprising roughly 18 percent of the population of France. By the 17th century, Paris
Paris
was one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The Paris Region had a GDP
GDP
of €649.6 billion (US $763.4 billion) in 2014, accounting for 30.4 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France. According to official estimates, the Paris Region has the fourth-highest GDP
GDP
in the world and the largest regional GDP
GDP
in the EU
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French People
102,378 OTHER COUNTRIES _ MOROCCO 100,000 estimated 85,000 MEXICO 60,000 ALGERIA 32,000 CHINA 31,000 LUXEMBOURG 31,000 HONG KONG 25,000 NETHERLANDS 23,000 SENEGAL 20,000 MAURITIUS 15,000 MONACO 10,000 SWEDEN 9,005 AUSTRIA 8,246 LANGUAGES * French and other languages (Langues d\'oïl * Occitan * Auvergnat * Corsican * Catalan * Franco-Provençal * Germanic * Breton * Basque ) RELIGION* Predominantly Roman Catholicism Minority : Protestantism * Judaism RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS * Celtic peoples * Romance peoples * Germanic peoples The FRENCH (French : _Français_) are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France . This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural. Historically the French people's heritage is diverse, including populations of Gauls , Ligures , Latins , Franks , Iberians , Alamans and Norsemen . France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, and while most French people speak the French language as their mother tongue , languages like Norman , Occitan , Catalan , Auvergnat , Corsican , Basque , French Flemish , Franconian , Alsatian and Breton remain spoken in some regions
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Christian
A CHRISTIAN ( /ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ (_ listen ) or /ˈkrɪstjən/ ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity , an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ . "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek word Christ ós_ (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term _mashiach _. While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance. The term "Christian" is also used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all that is noble, and good, and Christ-like." According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world\'s largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue. Today, about 37% of all Christians live in the Americas , about 26% live in Europe , 24% live in sub-Saharan Africa , about 13% live in Asia and the Pacific , and 1% live in the Middle east and North Africa
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Irreligion
IRRELIGION (adjective form: _non-religious_ or _irreligious_) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion . Irreligion may include some forms of theism , depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism . According to the Pew Research Center 's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, only 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. . According to their projections, the non-religious, though temporarily increasing, will ultimately decline significantly by 2050 because of lower reproductive rates and ageing. CONTENTS * 1 Kinds of irreligion * 2 Human rights * 3