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Fouad Mebazaa
FOUAD MEBAZAA (Arabic : فؤاد المبزع‎‎ _Fuʾād el-Mbazaʿ_; born 15 June 1933) is a Tunisian politician who was President of Tunisia from 15 January 2011 to 13 December 2011. He was active in Neo Destour prior to Tunisian independence, served as Minister of Youth and Sports, Minister of Public Health, and Minister of Culture and Information, and was President of the Chamber of Deputies of Tunisia
Tunisia
from 1997 to 2011. CONTENTS* 1 Political career * 1.1 Pre-independence * 1.2 1956–2010 * 1.3 2011 Presidency * 2 References * 3 External links POLITICAL CAREERPRE-INDEPENDENCEBorn during the French occupation of Tunisia
Tunisia
, Mebazaa became a member of the "constitutional youth" in 1947 and was elected a member of the Aix – Marseille
Marseille
unit of the Neo Destour political party, which played a major role in gaining independence from France. He was elected as Secretary-General of the Marsa unit of Neo Destour in 1955 and President of its Montpellier unit in 1956. 1956–2010After Tunisian independence in 1956 , Mebazaa was elected to the Chamber of Deputies several times, starting in 1964
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List Of Presidents Of Tunisia
This page lists the holders of the office of President of Tunisia and those who have acted in that capacity in the absence of a sworn President. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 List * 3 Rank by time in office * 4 Living former Presidents * 5 Timeline * 6 Footnotes * 7 See also * 8 External links BACKGROUND Tunisia has had five Presidents since the proclamation of the republic on July 25, 1957: * PRESIDENT HABIB BOURGUIBA was appointed President by the parliament on July 25, 1957, until the election of a permanent president. After the Constitution was enacted on June 1, 1959, a presidential election was held on November 8, 1959. Being the only one running for office, he gained 91% of the votes to serve a 5-year term. Bourguiba will serve 3 more terms, proclaiming himself President for Life during the fourth before being overthrown in the coup d\'état of November 7, 1987, organized by his Prime Minister Ben Ali. * PRESIDENT ZINE EL ABIDINE BEN ALI was Prime Minister and Minister of Interior under President Bourguiba. Ben Ali impeached Bourguiba for medical purposes on November 7, 1987, thus assuming the office of second and acting President of Tunisia, until the election of a permanent president. Ben Ali was elected on April 2, 1989, to serve a 5-year term followed by 3 other terms
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President Of Tunisia
The PRESIDENT OF TUNISIA, formally known as the PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA (Arabic : رئيس الجمهورية التونسية‎‎, French : Président de la République tunisienne) is the head of state of Tunisia . Tunisia is a semi-presidential republic , whereby the president is the head of state and the prime minister (named Head of Government of Tunisia ) is head of government . Under Article 77 of the Constitution of Tunisia , the president is also the commander-in-chief of the Tunisian Armed Forces . CONTENTS * 1 Elections * 2 Role and powers * 3 History * 4 2011 presidential transition * 5 Living former Presidents * 6 Latest election * 7 See also * 8 References ELECTIONS Main article: Elections in Tunisia The president is directly elected by universal suffrage by majority, with a second round between the top two candidates, if neither receives an absolute majority in the first round. A presidential candidate must be at least 35 years old on the day of filing for candidacy, and have the religion of Islam. The candidate must have a Tunisian nationality, and must abandon any other nationality. ROLE AND POWERSThe president's role and powers are defined in title four, part one of the constitution. In addition to being the head of state, the president is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces
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Mohamed Ghannouchi
MOHAMED GHANNOUCHI (Arabic : محمد الغنوشي‎‎ _Muhammad Al-Ghannushi_; born 18 August 1941) is a Tunisian politician who was Prime Minister of Tunisia from 1999 to 2011. Regarded as a technocrat , Ghannouchi was a long-standing figure in the Tunisian government under President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali . After Ben Ali's ousting in the 2011 Tunisian Revolution , he remained Prime Minister for six weeks before stepping down. CONTENTS* 1 Political career * 1.1 WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
description * 1.2 Role following 2010–2011 Tunisian uprising * 2 Awards and honors * 3 Personal life * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links POLITICAL CAREERGhannouchi was a member of the Tunisian parliament for the Democratic Constitutional Rally . He was Minister of Finance from 1989 to 1992. From 1992 to 1999, he served as Minister of International Co-operation and Foreign Investment, and from 1999 to 2011 he was the Prime Minister of Tunisia, making him the longest serving prime minister since the proclamation of independence, surpassing his predecessor Hamed Karoui
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Béji Caïd Essebsi
MOHAMED BEJI CAID ESSEBSI (or ES-SEBSI, Arabic : محمد الباجي قائد السبسي‎‎, Muhammad al-Bājī Qā’id as-Sibsī; pronunciation (help ·info ) born 29 November 1926 ) is a Tunisian politician who has been President of Tunisia since December 2014. Previously he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1981 to 1986 and as Prime Minister from February 2011 to December 2011. Essebsi is the founder of the Nidaa Tounes
Nidaa Tounes
political party, which won a plurality in the 2014 parliamentary election . In December 2014, he won the first regular presidential election following the Tunisian Revolution , becoming Tunisia's first freely and directly elected president. CONTENTS * 1 Personal life * 2 Political career * 2.1 Interim Prime Minister in 2011 * 2.2 2014 elections * 2.3 President of Tunisia * 3 Decorations * 3.1 Tunisian national honours * 3.2 Foreign honors * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links PERSONAL LIFEBorn in Sidi Bou Said to a family from the Tunisian landed élite , he is a great-grandson of Ismail Caïd Essebsi, a Sardinian kidnapped by Tunisian corsairs along the coasts of Sardinia
Sardinia
at the beginning of the nineteenth century who became a mamluk leader raised with the ruling family. He was later recognized as a free man when he became an important member of the government
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Moncef Marzouki
MOHAMED MONCEF MARZOUKI (Arabic : محمد المنصف المرزوقي‎‎; Muhammad al-Munṣif al-Marzūqī, born 7 July 1945) is a Tunisian politician who was President of Tunisia from 2011 to 2014. Through his career he has been a human rights activist, physician and politician. On 12 December 2011, he was elected as President of Tunisia by the Constituent Assembly . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Political career * 2.1 President of Tunisia * 3 Post-presidency * 4 Personal life * 5 Decorations * 5.1 Tunisian National Honours * 5.2 Foreign Honors * 6 Publications * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Grombalia , Tunisia, Marzouki was the son of a Qadi
Qadi
. His father, being a supporter of Salah Ben Youssef (Bourguiba's opponent), emigrated to Morocco
Morocco
in the late 1950s because of political pressures. Marzouki finished his secondary education in Tangier , where he obtained the Baccalauréat in 1961. He then went to study medicine at the University of Strasbourg in France
France
. Returning to Tunisia
Tunisia
in 1979, he founded the Center for Community Medicine in Sousse and the African Network for Prevention of Child Abuse, also joining Tunisian League for Human Rights
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List Of Presidents Of The Chamber Of Deputies Of Tunisia
The PRESIDENT OF THE ASSEMBLY OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PEOPLE OF TUNISIA is the presiding officer of that body. The Assembly of the Representatives of the People is the unicameral legislature of Tunisia . From 1956 to 1959, the Tunisian legislature was called the National Constituent Assembly, from 1959 to 1981 the National Assembly, from 1981 to 2011 the Chamber of Deputies and from 2011 to 2014 the Constituent Assembly . Since 2014, it is called the Assembly of the Representatives of the People. From the creation of the Chamber of Advisors in 2002 until the Revolution in 2011, the Chamber of Deputies was the lower house of the Parliament of Tunisia
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Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
ZINE EL ABIDINE BEN ALI (Arabic : زين العابدين بن علي‎‎, _Zayn al-‘Ābidīn bin ‘Alī_; born 3 September 1936; and commonly referred to as BEN ALI), was President of Tunisia from 1987 to 2011. Ben Ali was appointed Prime Minister in October 1987, and he assumed the Presidency on 7 November 1987 in a bloodless coup d\'état that ousted President Habib Bourguiba , who was declared incompetent. Ben Ali was subsequently reelected with enormous majorities, each time exceeding 90% of the vote; the final re-election was on 25 October 2009. On 14 January 2011, following a month of protests against his rule, he was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
along with his wife Leïla Ben Ali and their three children. The interim Tunisian government asked for Interpol
Interpol
to issue an international arrest warrant, charging him for money laundering and drugs trafficking . A Tunisian court sentenced Ben Ali and his wife _in absentia _ to 35 years in prison on 20 June 2011 on charges of theft and unlawful possession of cash and jewellery. In June 2012, a Tunisian court sentenced him _in absentia_ to life imprisonment for inciting violence and murder and another life sentence by a military court on April 2013 for violent repression of protests in Sfax
Sfax

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Habib Boularès
HABIB BOULARèS (Arabic : الحبيب بولعراس‎‎) (29 July 1933 – 18 April 2014) was a Tunisian diplomat and politician. He first entered the cabinet in 1970 as Minister of Culture and Information, serving in that post until 1971. He served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tunisia
Tunisia
from 1990 to 1991, Minister of Defense for a brief period in 1991, and as President of the Chamber of Deputies of Tunisia
Tunisia
from 1991 to 1997. He served as Secretary-General of the Arab-Maghreb Union from 2002 to 2006, and was succeeded by Habib Ben Yahia . Boularès died, aged 80, in Paris
Paris
. REFERENCES * ^ "Décès de Habib Boularès" (in French). Leaders Tunisie . April 18, 2014. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014. * ^ "Tunisia\'s Habib Ben Yahia becomes new UMA head". Panapress. 2006-01-08. Retrieved 2008-07-16
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Sahbi Karoui
SAHBI KAROUI is a member of the African Union 's Pan-African Parliament representing Tunisia
Tunisia
. SEE ALSO * List of members of the Pan-African Parliament
Pan-African Parliament
REFERENCES * ^ Pan-African Parliament
Pan-African Parliament
members as of 15 March 2004 Archived 10 November 2010 at WebCite * ^ Pan-African Parliament
Pan-African Parliament
members, as of 2006 Archived 16 December 2010 at WebCite POLITICAL OFFICES Preceded by Fouad Mebazaa President of the Chamber of Deputies Acting 2011 Succeeded by Mustapha Ben Jafar AS PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY * v * t * e Presidents of the legislatures of Tunisia
Tunisia
Constituent Assembly (1956–1959) * Bourguiba * Fares National Assembly / Chamber of Deputies (1959–2011) * Fares * Mokaddem * Messadi * Sfar * Baly * Essebsi * Boularès * Mebazaa * Karoui Chamber of Advisors (upper house, 2005–2011) * Kallel * Aloui Constituent Assembly (2011–2014) * Ben Jafar Assembly of the Representatives of the People
Assembly of the Representatives of the People
(since 2014) * Ennaceur Italics indicate acting officeholder This article about a Tunisian politician is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Tunis
TUNIS ( Arabic
Arabic
: تونس‎‎ _ Tūnis _) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia
Tunisia
. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as _Grand Tunis_, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants. Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
gulf (the Gulf of Tunis ), behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette (Ḥalq il-Wād), the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it. At its core lies its ancient medina , a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. East of the medina through the Sea Gate (also known as the _ Bab el Bhar _ and the _Porte de France_) begins the modern city, or Ville Nouvelle, traversed by the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba (often referred to by popular press and travel guides as "the Tunisian Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
"), where the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast to smaller, older structures. Further east by the sea lie the suburbs of Carthage , La Marsa , and Sidi Bou Said . As the capital city of the country, Tunis
Tunis
is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life; it is also the centre of the country's commercial activity
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French Protectorate Of Tunisia
The FRENCH PROTECTORATE OF TUNISIA (French : Protectorat français de Tunisie; Arabic : الحماية الفرنسية في تونس‎‎ al-Ḥimāya al-Fransīya fī Tūnis) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956. Tunisia
Tunisia
formed a province of the decaying Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
but enjoyed a large measure of autonomy under the bey Muhammad III as-Sadiq . In 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Russian victory foreshadowed the dismemberment of the empire, including independence for several Balkan possessions and international discussions about the future of the North African provinces. The Berlin Congress of 1878 convened to resolve the Ottoman question. Britain, although opposed to total dismantling of the Ottoman Empire, offered France
France
control of Tunisia, in return for Cyprus. Germany, seeing the French claim as a way to divert French attention from vengeful action in Europe, after the Franco-Prussian War , and little concerned about the southern Mediterranean, agreed to allow France
France
overlordship in Tunisia. Italy , which had economic interests in Tunisia, strongly opposed the plan but was unable to impose its will
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Independent (politician)
An INDEPENDENT or NONPARTISAN POLITICIAN is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party . There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent. * Independents may support policies which are different from those of the major political parties. * In some parts of the world electors may have a tradition of electing independents, so standing for a political party is a disadvantage. * In some countries (including Russia
Russia
) a political party can only be registered if it has a huge number of members in more than one region, but in certain regions only a minority of electors support the major parties. * In some countries (including Kuwait
Kuwait
), political parties are unlawful and all candidates thus stand as independents. Some independent politicians may be associated with a political party, perhaps as former members of it, or else have views that align with it, but choose not to stand in its name, or are unable to do so because the party in question has selected another candidate. Others may belong to or support a political party at the national level but believe they should not formally represent it (and thus be subject to its policies) at another level. In running for public office, independents sometimes choose to form a party or alliance with other independents, and may formally register their party or alliance
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Constitutional Democratic Rally
The DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTIONAL RALLY or DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY (Arabic : التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطي‎‎ _at-Tajammu‘ ad-Dustūrī ad-Dīmuqrāṭī_, French : _Rassemblement Constitutionnel Démocratique_, sometimes also called CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRATIC RALLY in English), also referred to by its French initials RCD, formerly called Neo Destour then Socialist Destourian Party , was the ruling party in Tunisia
Tunisia
from independence in 1956 until it was overthrown and dissolved in the Tunisian revolution in 2011. CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 Leaders * 3 Congresses * 4 Election results * 4.1 Presidential elections * 4.2 Parliamentary elections * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY AND PROFILEIn 1920, Tunisian nationalists formed the Destour (Constitutional) Party in opposition to French rule . As the party developed, a schism occurred within the party, leading to the founding of the Neo Destour Party in 1934 by Habib Bourguiba and several younger members of the old Destour. Under his leadership, the Neo Destour Party successfully garnered independence from France
France
in 1956. As it was, for all intents and purposes, the only well-organized party in the country, it swept the Constituent Assembly elections held later that year
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Politics Of Tunisia
The POLITICS OF TUNISIA takes place within the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic , with a President serving as head of state , Prime Minister as head of government , a unicameral legislature and a court system influenced by French civil law. Between 1956 and 2011, Tunisia
Tunisia
operated as a de facto one-party state , with politics dominated by the secular Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD) under former Presidents Habib Bourgiba and then Zine el Abidine Ben Ali
Zine el Abidine Ben Ali
. However, in 2011 a national uprising led to the ousting of the President and the dismantling of the RCD, paving the way for a multi-party democracy. October 2014 saw the first democratic parliamentary elections since the 2011 revolution, resulting in a win by the secularist Nidaa Tounes party with 85 seats in the 217-member assembly. Tunisia
Tunisia
is a member of the Arab League , the African Union
African Union
and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation . It maintains close relations with the United States, France and the European Union, with which it entered an Association Agreement in 1995. Tunisia’s favorable relations with the United States and the European Union were earned following years of successful economic cooperation in the private sector and infrastructure modernization
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