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Fossil Fuel
A FOSSIL FUEL is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms , containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil
Fossil
fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum , coal , and natural gas . Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane . Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane , to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane
Methane
can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil , or in the form of methane clathrates
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Pressure
PRESSURE (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre ; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi ) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure ; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as  1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water , millimetre of mercury , and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer
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HEAT
HEAT is the amount of energy flowing from one body of matter to another spontaneously due to their temperature difference, or by any means other than through work or the transfer of matter. The transfer can be by contact between the source and the destination body, as in conduction ; or by radiation between remote bodies; or by way of an intermediate fluid body, as in convective circulation ; or by a combination of these. In thermodynamics , heat is often contrasted with work : heat applies to individual particles (such as atoms or molecules), work applies to objects (or a system as a whole). Heat
Heat
involves stochastic (or random) motion equally distributed among all degrees of freedom , while work is directional, confined to one or more specific degrees of freedom
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Waste-to-energy
WASTE-TO-ENERGY or ENERGY-FROM-WASTE is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste . WtE is a form of energy recovery . Most WtE processes produce electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane , methanol , ethanol or synthetic fuels . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Methods * 2.1 Incineration * 2.2 Other * 3 Global developments * 4 Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
emissions * 4.1 Determination of the biomass fraction * 5 Examples of waste-to-energy plants * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (October 2016) The first incinerator or "Destructor" was built in Nottingham
Nottingham
UK in 1874 by Manlove, Alliott except when producing bio-char for fertilizer)
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Matter
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, MATTER is any substance that has mass and takes up space; this includes atoms and anything made up of these, but not other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound . More generally, however, in (modern ) physics , matter is not a fundamental concept because a universal definition of it is elusive; for example, the elementary constituents of atoms may be point particles, each having no volume individually. All the everyday objects that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are ultimately composed of atoms . This ordinary atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles —usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons , and a cloud of orbiting electrons . Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles , such as photons , are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume
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Mikhail Lomonosov
MIKHAIL VASILYEVICH LOMONOSOV (/ˌlɒməˈnɔːsɔːf, -sɒf/ ; Russian : Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов; IPA: ( listen ); November 19 1711 – April 15 1765) was a Russian polymath , scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reactions . His spheres of science were natural science , chemistry , physics , mineralogy , history, art, philology , optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language
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Fossil
FOSSILS (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous (fossil-containing) rock formations and sedimentary layers (strata ) is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils across geological time , how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny ) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology . Such a preserved specimen is called a "fossil" if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years. Hence, fossils range in age from the youngest at the start of the Holocene Epoch to the oldest, chemical fossils from the Archaean Eon, up to 3.48 billion years old, or even older, 4.1 billion years old, according to a 2015 study
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Georgius Agricola
GEORGIUS AGRICOLA (/əˈɡrɪkələ/ ; 24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist. He is known as "the father of mineralogy ", he was born at Glauchau in Saxony
Saxony
. His birth name was GEORG PAWER (Bauer in modern German); Agricola is the Latinized version of his name, by which he was known his entire adult life; Agricola and Bauer mean "farmer" in their respective languages. He is best known for his book De Re Metallica (1556). CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 De re metallica * 3 Final days * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFE AND WORKGifted with a precocious intellect, Agricola early threw himself into the pursuit of the "new learning ", with such effect that at the age of 20, he was appointed Rector extraordinarius of Greek at the so-called Great School of Zwickau , and made his appearance as a writer on philology
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MUD
A MUD
MUD
(/ˈmʌd/ ; originally MULTI-USER DUNGEON, with later variants MULTI-USER DIMENSION and MULTI-USER DOMAIN), is a multiplayer real-time virtual world , usually text-based . MUDs combine elements of role-playing games , hack and slash , player versus player , interactive fiction , and online chat . Players can read or view descriptions of rooms, objects, other players, non-player characters , and actions performed in the virtual world. Players typically interact with each other and the world by typing commands that resemble a natural language . Dungeon crawling in a traditional MUD. Traditional MUDs implement a role-playing video game set in a fantasy world populated by fictional races and monsters , with players choosing classes in order to gain specific skills or powers
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Tonnes
The TONNE (/tʌn/ ( listen )) (non-preferred SI derived unit ; SI symbol: T), commonly referred to as the METRIC TON in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms ; or one MEGAGRAM (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds , 1.10 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI per se, the tonne is "accepted for use with" SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures , along with several other units like the bar , litre and day . CONTENTS * 1 Symbol and abbreviations * 2 Origin and spelling * 3 Conversions * 4 Derived units * 5 Alternative usage * 5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy * 5.2 Unit of force * 6 See also * 7 Notes and references * 8 External links SYMBOL AND ABBREVIATIONSThe SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit itself in 1879
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Geologic Time Scale
The GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy ) to time, and is used by geologists , paleontologists , and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth\'s history . The table of geologic time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature , dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
. Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth
Earth
is about 4.54 billion years old . The geology or deep time of Earth's past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. Different spans of time on the GTS are usually marked by changes in the composition of strata which correspond to those, and indicate major geological or paleontological events, such as mass extinctions
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Organic Compound
An ORGANIC COMPOUND is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon , although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds. The most basic petrochemicals are considered the building blocks of organic chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions of organic vs inorganic * 2 History * 2.1 Vitalism * 2.2 Modern classification * 3 Classification * 3.1 Natural compounds * 3.2 Synthetic compounds * 3.3 Biotechnology * 4 Databases * 5 Structure determination * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIC VS INORGANICFor historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds, such as carbides , carbonates , simple oxides of carbon (for example, CO and CO2), and cyanides are considered inorganic
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Anoxic Sea Water
ANOXIC WATERS are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia . The US Geological Survey defines anoxic groundwater as those with dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 0.5 milligrams per litre. This condition is generally found in areas that have restricted water exchange. In most cases, oxygen is prevented from reaching the deeper levels by a physical barrier as well as by a pronounced density stratification, in which, for instance, heavier hypersaline waters rest at the bottom of a basin. Anoxic conditions will occur if the rate of oxidation of organic matter by bacteria is greater than the supply of dissolved oxygen . Anoxic waters
Anoxic waters
are a natural phenomenon, and have occurred throughout geological history
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Zooplankton
ZOOPLANKTON (pronounced in several different ways, including /ˈzoʊəˌplæŋktən, ˈzuːəˌ-, ˈzoʊoʊˌ-, ˈzuːˌ-, -ˌplæŋtən/ or /ˌzoʊəˈplæŋktən, -ˌtɒn/ . ) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous ) plankton . Plankton
Plankton
are organisms drifting in oceans , seas , and bodies of fresh water . The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic , but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible with the naked eye. CONTENTS * 1 Ecology * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ECOLOGY A copepod ( Calanoida sp.) A jellyfish (Aequorea victoria )