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Fossil Fuel
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.[1] The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years.[2] Fossil
Fossil
fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.[3] Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane. Fossil
Fossil
fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal
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Crude Oil
Petroleum
Petroleum
is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds.[1] The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum
Petroleum
has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare)
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Wood Fuel
Wood
Wood
fuel (or fuelwood) is a fuel, such as firewood, charcoal, chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust. The particular form used depends upon factors such as source, quantity, quality and application. In many areas, wood is the most easily available form of fuel, requiring no tools in the case of picking up dead wood, or few tools, although as in any industry, specialized tools, such as skidders and hydraulic wood splitters, have been developed to mechanize production. Sawmill waste and construction industry by-products also include various forms of lumber tailings. The discovery of how to make fire for the purpose of burning wood is regarded as one of humanity's most important advances. The use of wood as a fuel source for heating is much older than civilization and is assumed to have been used by Neanderthals. Today, burning of wood is the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass
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Waste-to-energy
Waste-to-energy
Waste-to-energy
(WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste. WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most WtE processes produce electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels.[1]Contents1 History 2 Methods2.1 Incineration 2.2 Other3 Global developments 4 Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
emissions4.1 Determination of the biomass fraction5 Examples of waste-to-energy plants 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2016)The first incinerator or "Destructor" was built in Nottingham
Nottingham
UK in 1874 by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd
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Non-renewable Resources
A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames. An example is carbon-based, organically-derived fuel
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Tonnes
The tonne (/tʌn/ ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6]Contents1 Symbol and abbreviations 2 Origin and spelling 3 Conversions 4 Derived units 5 Alternative usage5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy 5.2 Unit of force6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksSymbol and abbreviations[edit] The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It
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Gigatonne
The tonne (/tʌn/ ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6]Contents1 Symbol and abbreviations 2 Origin and spelling 3 Conversions 4 Derived units 5 Alternative usage5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy 5.2 Unit of force6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksSymbol and abbreviations[edit] The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Greenhouse Gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.[1] The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone
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Radiative Forcing
Radiative forcing
Radiative forcing
or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.[1] The influences that cause changes to the Earth’s climate system altering Earth’s radiative equilibrium, forcing temperatures to rise or fall, are called climate Forcings.[2] Positive radiative forcing means Earth receives more incoming energy from sunlight than it radiates to space. This net gain of energy will cause warming. Conversely, negative radiative forcing means that Earth loses more energy to space than it receives from the sun, which produces cooling. Typically, radiative forcing is quantified at the tropopause or at the top of the atmosphere (often accounting for rapid adjustments in temperature) in units of watts per square meter of the Earth's surface
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Global Warming
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.[1][2] Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming.[3][4][5] Many of the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record which extends back to the mid-19th century, and in paleoclimate proxy records covering thousands of years.[6] In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Climate
Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report concluded that "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."[7] The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide
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Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
/ˌfaɪtoʊˈplæŋktən/ are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems. The name comes from the Greek words φυτόν (phyton), meaning "plant", and πλαγκτός (planktos), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter".[1] Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye
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Tidal Power
Tidal power
Tidal power
or tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal energy has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than the wind and the sun. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal energy has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent[when? clarification needed] technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g
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Zooplankton
Zooplankton
Zooplankton
(pronounced in several different ways, including /ˈzoʊəˌplæŋktən, ˈzuːəˌ-, ˈzoʊoʊˌ-, ˈzuːˌ-, -ˌplæŋtən/[1] or /ˌzoʊəˈplæŋktən, -ˌtɒn/.[2]) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton. Plankton
Plankton
are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter".[3] Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic, but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible with the naked eye.Contents1 Ecology 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEcology[edit]A copepod ( Calanoida
Calanoida
sp.)A jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) Zooplankton
Zooplankton
is a categorization spanning a range of organism sizes including small protozoans and large metazoans
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Anoxic Sea Water
Anoxic waters
Anoxic waters
are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia. The US Geological Survey defines anoxic groundwater as those with dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 0.5 milligrams per litre.[1] This condition is generally found in areas that have restricted water exchange. In most cases, oxygen is prevented from reaching the deeper levels by a physical barrier[2] as well as by a pronounced density stratification, in which, for instance, heavier hypersaline waters rest at the bottom of a basin. Anoxic conditions will occur if the rate of oxidation of organic matter by bacteria is greater than the supply of dissolved oxygen. Anoxic waters
Anoxic waters
are a natural phenomenon,[3] and have occurred throughout geological history
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