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Forward Osmosis
FORWARD OSMOSIS (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved solutes. The driving force for this separation is an osmotic pressure gradient, such that a "draw" solution of high concentration (relative to that of the feed solution), is used to induce a net flow of water through the membrane into the draw solution, thus effectively separating the feed water from its solutes. In contrast, the reverse osmosis process uses hydraulic pressure as the driving force for separation, which serves to counteract the osmotic pressure gradient that would otherwise favor water flux from the permeate to the feed. Hence significantly more energy is required for reverse osmosis compared to forward osmosis
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Fick's Laws Of Diffusion
FICK\'S LAWS OF DIFFUSION describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855. They can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient , D. Fick's first law can be used to derive his second law which in turn is identical to the diffusion equation . CONTENTS * 1 Fick\'s first law * 2 Fick\'s second law * 3 Derivation of Fick\'s laws * 3.1 Fick\'s first law * 3.2 Fick\'s second law * 4 Derivation * 4.1 Example solution in one dimension: diffusion length * 4.2 Generalizations * 5 Applications * 5.1 Biological perspective * 5.2 Fick\'s flow in liquids * 5.3 Semiconductor fabrication applications * 6 History * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links FICK\'S FIRST LAWFICK\'S FIRST LAW relates the diffusive flux to the concentration under the assumption of steady state
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Pathogen
In biology , a PATHOGEN (Greek : πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease ; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus , bacterium , protozoa , prion , a fungus , or other micro-organism. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases
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Toxicity
TOXICITY is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism . Toxicity
Toxicity
can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal , bacterium , or plant , as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity ) or an organ such as the liver (hepatotoxicity ). By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage. A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxin are dose -dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect
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Glucose
GLUCOSE is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C 6H 12O 6. Glucose
Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar . It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration . Glucose
Glucose
is stored as a polymer , in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen . With 6 carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose , a subcategory of the monosaccharides . D- Glucose
Glucose
is one of the 16 aldohexose stereoisomers . The D-isomer , D-glucose , also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose , does not. Glucose
Glucose
can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar, cane sugar, maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc
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Fluid Dynamics
In physics and engineering , FLUID DYNAMICS is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids (liquids and gases ). It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and HYDRODYNAMICS (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid
Fluid
dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft , determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines , predicting weather patterns , understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modelling fission weapon detonation . Fluid
Fluid
dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines —that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems
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Hydrostatic Pressure
FLUID STATICS or HYDROSTATICS is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest. It encompasses the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium as opposed to fluid dynamics , the study of fluids in motion. Hydrostatics are categorized as a part of the fluid statics, which is the study of all fluids, incompressible or not, at rest. Hydrostatics is fundamental to hydraulics , the engineering of equipment for storing, transporting and using fluids. It is also relevant to geophysics and astrophysics (for example, in understanding plate tectonics and the anomalies of the Earth\'s gravitational field ), to meteorology , to medicine (in the context of blood pressure ), and many other fields
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Concentration
In chemistry , CONCENTRATION is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguished: mass concentration , molar concentration , number concentration , and volume concentration . The term concentration can be applied to any kind of chemical mixture, but most frequently it refers to solutes and solvents in solutions . The molar (amount) concentration has variants such as normal concentration and osmotic concentration
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Pressure
PRESSURE (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre ; similarly, the pound-force per square inch (psi ) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and US customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure ; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as  1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water , millimetre of mercury , and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer
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Flux
FLUX is either of two separate simple and ubiquitous concepts throughout physics and applied mathematics . Within a discipline, the term is generally used consistently, but care must be taken when comparing phenomena from different disciplines. Both concepts have mathematical rigor, enabling comparison of the underlying math when the terminology is unclear. For transport phenomena, flux is a vector quantity, describing the magnitude and direction of the flow of a substance or property. In electromagnetism , flux is a scalar quantity, defined as the surface integral of the component of a vector field perpendicular to the surface at each point. As will be made clear, the easiest way to relate the two concepts is that the surface integral of a flux according to the first definition is a flux according to the second definition
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Hydraulic Permeability
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, symbolically represented as K {displaystyle K} , is a property of vascular plants , soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material, the degree of saturation , and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ksat, describes water movement through saturated media. By definition, hydraulic conductivity is the ratio of velocity to hydraulic gradient indicating permeability of porous media
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Fructose
FRUCTOSE, or FRUIT SUGAR, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose . It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose , that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion . Fructose
Fructose
was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. The name "fructose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller. Pure, dry fructose is a very sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. Fructose
Fructose
is found in honey , tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries , and most root vegetables . Commercially, fructose is frequently derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize . Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity
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Urine
URINE is a liquid by-product of metabolism in the bodies of many animals , including humans. It is expelled from the kidneys and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder , from which it is soon excreted from the body through the urethra during urination . Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many nitrogenous (rich in nitrogen ), that require clearance from the bloodstream . These by-products are eventually expelled from the body during urination, the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. These chemicals can be detected and analyzed by urinalysis . Of the many such substances that exist, the three main nitrogenous wastes of the mammalian body are urea , uric acid , and creatinine . Animal
Animal
urine forms part of the nitrogen cycle . In balanced ecosystems it fertilizes soil and plants , which in turn continue to support the animal population. Some animals use it to mark their territories
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Statkraft Osmotic Power Prototype In Hurum
STATKRAFT OSMOTIC POWER PROTOTYPE is the world's first osmotic power plant, based on the energy of osmosis . The power plant is run by Statkraft . The power plant is located at Tofte in Hurum
Hurum
, Norway
Norway
, with rooms at the factory area at Södra Cell Tofte cellulose factory. The power plant uses the osmotic gradient that occurs when fresh water and salt water meet, separated by a permeable membrane. The salt water pulls fresh water through the membrane and the pressure increases on the salt water side; this pressure increase can be used to produce electrical power with the use of a normal hydroelectric turbine/generator setup. The plant is a prototype developed together with Sintef and began test power production on 24 November 2009. Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway
Norway
officially opened the plant
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO
ISO
. An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to th