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Fort Lauderdale
Fortifications are military constructions, or buildings, designed for the defense of territories in warfare and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. For many thousands of years, humans have constructed defensive works in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae
Mycenae
(famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls)
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Stronghold (other)
A stronghold or fortification is a military construction or building designed for defense. Stronghold
Stronghold
may also refer to:Contents1 Computing and gaming 2 Literature 3 Music 4 Places 5 Film and television 6 Other uses 7 See alsoComputing and gaming[edit] Stronghold
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Explosive Shell
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.[1][not verified in body] Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a tracer or spotting charge is used
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Nobility
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Hill Fort
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages. Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 6th century
6th century
to the 10th century
10th century
CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
of European history. The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
overlap with Late Antiquity. The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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Black Powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Ditch (fortification)
A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders. In military fortifications the side of a ditch (or gorge) farthest from the enemy and closest to the next line of defence is known as the scarp while the side of a ditch closest to the enemy is known as the counterscarp.Contents1 Uses 2 Elements of a ditch in an artillery fortification (16th to 19th centuries) 3 See also 4 ReferencesUses[edit] In early fortifications, ditches were often used in combination with ramparts to slow down the enemy whilst defensive fire could be brought to bear from the relative protection afforded by the rampart and possibly the palisade. In medieval fortification, a ditch was often constructed in front of a defensive wall to hinder mining and escalade activities from an attacker. When filled with water, such a defensive ditch is called a moat
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Earthworks (engineering)
Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.Contents1 Types of excavation 2 Civil engineering use 3 Military use 4 Equipment 5 Mass haul planning 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes of excavation[edit]Earth moving equipment (circa 1922)Flattened and leveled construction site
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Rampart (fortification)
In fortification architecture, a rampart is a length of bank or wall forming part of the defensive boundary of a castle, hillfort, settlement or other fortified site
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Star Fort
A bastion fort, a type of trace Italienne (literally, Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the age of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy. Some types, especially when combined with ravelins and other outworks, resembled the related star fort of the same era. The design of the fort is normally a pentagon or hexagon[citation needed] with bastions at the corners of the walls. These outcroppings allowed fire along the curtain from positions protected from direct fire
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Castle
A castle (from Latin: castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East
Middle East
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. This is distinct from a palace, which is not fortified; from a fortress, which was not always a residence for nobility; and from a fortified settlement, which was a public defence – though there are many similarities among these types of construction. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses
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Steel
Steel
Steel
is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Iron
Iron
is the base metal of steel. Iron
Iron
is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube
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