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Fort
Fortifications are military constructions, or buildings, designed for the defense of territories in warfare and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. For many thousands of years, humans have constructed defensive works in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae
Mycenae
(famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls)
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Stronghold (other)
A stronghold or fortification is a military construction or building designed for defense. Stronghold
Stronghold
may also refer to:Contents1 Computing and gaming 2 Literature 3 Music 4 Places 5 Film and television 6 Other uses 7 See alsoComputing and gaming[edit] Stronghold
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Cyclopean
Cyclopean masonry
Cyclopean masonry
is a type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with massive limestone boulders, roughly fitted together with minimal clearance between adjacent stones and no use of mortar. The boulders typically seem unworked, but some may have been worked roughly with a hammer and the gaps between boulders filled in with smaller chunks of limestone. The most famous examples of Cyclopean masonry
Cyclopean masonry
are found in the walls of Mycenae
Mycenae
and Tiryns, and the style is characteristic of Mycenaean fortifications
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Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Engineering
is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others
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Demilitarized Zone
A demilitarized zone, DMZ or DZ[1] is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel. A DMZ often lies along an established frontier or boundary between two or more military powers or alliances. A DMZ may sometimes form a de facto international border, such as the 38th parallel between North and South Korea. Other examples of demilitarized zones are a 120-mile (190 km) area between Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait, Antarctica
Antarctica
(preserved for scientific exploration and study) and outer space (space more than 100 miles (160 km) from the earth's surface). Many demilitarized zones are considered neutral territory because neither side is allowed to control it, even for non-combat administration
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Obsolete
Obsolescence
Obsolescence
is the state of being which occurs when an object, service, or practice is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order. Obsolescence
Obsolescence
frequently occurs because a replacement has become available that has, in sum, more advantages compared to the disadvantages incurred by maintaining or repairing the original
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Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as calcium aluminate cements. However, asphalt concrete, which is frequently used for road surfaces, is also a type of concrete, where the cement material is bitumen, and polymer concretes are sometimes used where the cementing material is a polymer. When aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement
Portland cement
and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape
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Steel
Steel
Steel
is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Iron
Iron
is the base metal of steel. Iron
Iron
is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube
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Explosive Shell
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.[1][not verified in body] Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a tracer or spotting charge is used
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Black Powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 6th century
6th century
to the 10th century
10th century
CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
of European history. The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
overlap with Late Antiquity. The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Nobility
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Monarch
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.[1][2] A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means
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