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Forest
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.[1] Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.[2][3][4] According to the widely used[5][6] Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares (9.9×109 acres) (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006.[4] Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe.[7] Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass.[7] Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes
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Late Latin
Late Latin
Latin
is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity.[1] The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD,[2][3] extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century.[1] This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar. The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Middle Low German
Middle Low German
Low German
or Middle Saxon ( ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon
Old Saxon
and the ancestor of modern Low German. It served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was spoken from about 1100 to 1600, or 1200 to 1650.Contents1 Related languages 2 History 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksRelated languages[edit] Middle Low German
Low German
is a term used with varying degrees of inclusivity. It is distinguished from Middle High German, spoken to the south, which was later replaced by Early New High German
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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Old Frankish
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *Frenkisk),[2] Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language
West Germanic language
spoken by the Franks
Franks
between the 4th and 8th century. The language itself is poorly attested, but it gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French. Old Dutch
Old Dutch
is the term for the Old Franconian dialects that were spoken in the Low Countries, including present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, and Western parts of today's Germany, until about the 12th century when it evolved into Middle Dutch. During the Merovingian period, Frankish had significant influence on the Romance languages
Romance languages
spoken in Gaul. As a result, many modern French words and placenames (including the country name "France") have a Germanic origin
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Old High German
Old High German
Old High German
(OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century, and some treat the period before 750 as "prehistoric" and date the start of Old High German proper to 750 for this reason
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Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Latin
was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity[dubious – discuss] and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin
Latin
should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic
East Germanic
and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm's law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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Mount Dajt
Dajti (Albanian: Mali i Dajtit) standing at 1,613 m (5,292 ft) above sea level, is a mountain on the edge of Tirana, Albania. The Dajti belongs to the Skanderbeg range. In winter, the mountain is often covered with snow, and it is a popular retreat to the local population of Tirana that rarely sees snow falls. Its slopes have forests of pines, oak and beech, while its interior contains canyons, waterfalls, caves, a lake, and an ancient castle. The Dajti National Park was declared a national park in 1966, and has an expanded area of about 29,384 hectares since 2006.[2] The area is under shared jurisdiction between the Albanian Agency of Protected Areas (AKZM), and Tirana Municipality Parks and Recreation Agency (APR). In 2017, a new Dajti Mt National Park tourist information center was opened, and is located near the TV and Radio towers along SH47 in Fushe Dajt. The mountain can be reached through a narrow asphalted mountain road onto an area known as Fusha e Dajtit
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Carolingian
Non-agnatic lines:Robertian dynastyHouse of Capet Bosonid dynastyCarolingian dynastyThe Carolingian cross.PippinidsPippin the Elder (c. 580–640) Grimoald (616–656) Childebert the Adopted
Childebert the Adopted
(d. 662)Arnulfings Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
(582–640) Ansegisel (d. 662 or 679) Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697) Pepin of Herstal
Pepin of Herstal
(635-714) Grimoald II (d. 714) Drogo of Champagne
Drogo of Champagne
(670–708) Theudoald (d. 741)Carolingians Charles Martel
Charles Martel
(686–741) Carloman (d
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Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(/ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn/) or Charles
Charles
the Great[a] (2 April 742[1][b] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles
Charles
I, was King of the Franks
Franks
from 768, King of the Lombards
Lombards
from 774 and Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier.[2] The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Adirondack Mountains
The Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
/ædɪˈrɒndæk/ form a massif in northeastern New York, United States. Its boundaries correspond to the boundaries of Adirondack Park. The mountains form a roughly circular dome, about 160 miles (260 km) in diameter and about 1 mile (1,600 m) high. The current relief owes much to glaciation.Contents1 History 2 Geology 3 Ecology 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]1876 map of the Adirondacks, showing many of the now obsolete names for many of the peaks, lakes, and communitiesThe earliest written use of the name, spelled Rontaks, was in 1724 by the French missionary Joseph-François Lafitau. He defined it as tree eaters. In the Mohawk language, Adirondack means porcupine, an animal that may eat bark. The Mohawks had no written language at the time so Europeans have used various phonetic spellings
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Swiss National Park
The Swiss National Park
National Park
(German: Schweizerischer Nationalpark; French: Parc National Suisse; Italian: Parco Nazionale Svizzero; Romansh: Parc Naziunal Svizzer) is located in the Western Rhaetian Alps, in eastern Switzerland
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