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Forensic Psychology
Forensic psychology
Forensic psychology
is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding fundamental legal principles, particularly with regard to expert witness testimony and the specific content area of concern (e.g., competence to stand trial, child custody and visitation, or workplace discrimination), as well as relevant jurisdictional considerations (e.g., in the United States, the definition of insanity in criminal trials differs from state to state) in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys, and other legal professionals
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Social Science
Social science
Social science
is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a social science. The social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science , psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science. Positivist
Positivist
social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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Dna Phenotyping
DNA
DNA
phenotyping (fee-no-type-ing) is the process of predicting an organism’s phenotype using only genetic information collected from genotyping or DNA
DNA
sequencing. This term, also known as molecular photofitting, is primarily used to refer to the prediction of a person’s physical appearance and/or biogeographic ancestry for forensic purposes. DNA
DNA
phenotyping uses many of the same scientific methods as those being used for genetically-informed personalized medicine, in which drug responsiveness (pharmacogenomics) and medical outcomes are predicted from a patient’s genetic information. Significant genetic variants associated with a particular trait are discovered using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach, in which hundreds of thousands or millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are tested for their association with each trait of interest
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Traffic Collision Reconstruction
Vehicular accident reconstruction is the scientific process of investigating, analyzing, and drawing conclusions about the causes and events during a vehicle collision. Reconstructionists are employed to conduct in-depth collision analysis and reconstruction to identify the collision causation and contributing factors in different types of collisions, including the role of the driver(s), vehicle(s), roadway and the environment. The laws of physics and engineering principles such as the conservation of linear momentum, work-energy methods, and kinematics are the basis for these analyses and may make use of software to calculate useful quantities. The accident reconstruction provides rigorous analysis that an expert witnesses can present at trial. Accident reconstructions are done in cases involving fatalities, and often when personal injury is involved
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Forensic Photography
Forensic photography, also referred to as crime scene photography, is an activity that records the initial appearance of the crime scene and physical evidence, in order to provide a permanent record for the courts.[1] Crime scene
Crime scene
photography differs from other variations of photography because crime scene photographers usually have a very specific purpose for capturing each image.[2] Crime scenes can be major sources of physical evidence that is used to associate or link suspects to scenes, victims to scenes, and suspects to victims. This is Locard's exchange principle. It is the basic tenet of why crime scenes should be investigated. Anything found at a crime scene can be physical evidence. In scientific crime scene investigation, the first activities at the crime scene are essential for the successful preservation of the physical evidence
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Palm Print
A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. It can be either an online image (i.e. taken by a scanner or CCD) or offline image where the image is taken with ink and paper.[1] The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles (secondary lines), and epidermal ridges. It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture, indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another. Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic, or commercial applications. Palm prints, typically from the butt of the palm, are often found at crime scenes as the result of the offender's gloves slipping during the commission of the crime, and thus exposing part of the unprotected hand.[2][3] References[edit] Media related to Palm prints at Wikimedia Commons^ Zhang, D. (2004). Palmprint Authentication, Kluwer Academic Publishers. ^ Fisher, Barry A.J. Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, CRC Press. 2004
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Questioned Document Examination
In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods
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Vein Matching
Vein matching, also called vascular technology,[1] is a technique of biometric identification through the analysis of the patterns of blood vessels visible from the surface of the skin.[2] Though used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
and the Central Intelligence Agency,[3] this method of identification is still in development and has not yet been universally adopted by crime labs as it is not considered as reliable as more established techniques, such as fingerprinting. However, it can be used in conjunction with existing forensic data in support of a conclusion.[2][4] While other types of biometric scanners are more popular for security systems, Vascular scanners are growing in popularity
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Digital Forensics
Digital forensics
Digital forensics
(sometimes known as digital forensic science) is a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices, often in relation to computer crime.[1][2] The term digital forensics was originally used as a synonym for computer forensics but has expanded to cover investigation of all devices capable of storing digital data.[1] With roots in the personal computing revolution of the late 1970s and early 1980s, the discipline evolved in a haphazard manner during the 1990s, and it was not until the early 21st century that national policies emerged. Digital forensics
Digital forensics
investigations have a variety of applications. The most common is to support or refute a hypothesis before criminal or civil courts
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Computer Forensics
Computer forensics
Computer forensics
(also known as computer forensic science[1]) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media. The goal of computer forensics is to examine digital media in a forensically sound manner with the aim of identifying, preserving, recovering, analyzing and presenting facts and opinions about the digital information. Although it is most often associated with the investigation of a wide variety of computer crime, computer forensics may also be used in civil proceedings. The discipline involves similar techniques and principles to data recovery, but with additional guidelines and practices designed to create a legal audit trail. Evidence from computer forensics investigations is usually subjected to the same guidelines and practices of other digital evidence. It has been used in a number of high-profile cases and is becoming widely accepted as reliable within U.S
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Forensic Data Analysis
Forensic Data
Data
Analysis (FDA) is a branch of Digital forensics. It examines structured data with regard to incidents of financial crime. The aim is to discover and analyse patterns of fraudulent activities. Data
Data
from application systems or from their underlying databases is referred to as structured data. Unstructured data in contrast is taken from communication and office applications or from mobile devices. This data has no overarching structure and analysis thereof means applying keywords or mapping communication patterns. Analysis of unstructured data is usually referred to as Computer forensics. Methodology[edit] The analysis of large volumes of data is typically performed in a separate database system run by the analysis team. Live systems are usually not dimensioned to run extensive individual analysis without affecting the regular users
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Database Forensics
Database
Database
forensics is a branch of digital forensic science relating to the forensic study of databases and their related metadata.[1] The discipline is similar to computer forensics, following the normal forensic process and applying investigative techniques to database contents and metadata. Cached information may also exist in a servers RAM
RAM
requiring live analysis techniques. A forensic examination of a database may relate to the timestamps that apply to the update time of a row in a relational table being inspected and tested for validity in order to verify the actions of a database user. Alternatively, a forensic examination may focus on identifying transactions within a database system or application that indicate evidence of wrongdoing, such as fraud. Software tools can be used to manipulate and analyse data
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Mobile Device Forensics
Mobile device
Mobile device
forensics is a branch of digital forensics relating to recovery of digital evidence or data from a mobile device under forensically sound conditions. The phrase mobile device usually refers to mobile phones; however, it can also relate to any digital device that has both internal memory and communication ability, including PDA devices, GPS
GPS
devices and tablet computers. The use of mobile phones/devices in crime was widely recognised for some years, but the forensic study of mobile devices is a relatively new field, dating from the early 2000s and late 1990s
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Network Forensics
Network forensics
Network forensics
is a sub-branch of digital forensics relating to the monitoring and analysis of computer network traffic for the purposes of information gathering, legal evidence, or intrusion detection.[1] Unlike other areas of digital forensics, network investigations deal with volatile and dynamic information. Network traffic is transmitted and then lost, so network forensics is often a pro-active investigation.[2] Network forensics
Network forensics
generally has two uses. The first, relating to security, involves monitoring a network for anomalous traffic and identifying intrusions. An attacker might be able to erase all log files on a compromised host; network-based evidence might therefore be the only evidence available for forensic analysis.[3] The second form relates to law enforcement
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Forensic Video Analysis
Forensic video analysis
Forensic video analysis
is the scientific examination, comparison and/or evaluation of video in legal matters.[1] This is a list of notable forensic video analysis software.Name Descriptioninput-ace.com input-ace.com is a forensic video analysis software built for public safety crime and collision investigations, security, forensic engineering professionals and video experts
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Forensic Profiling
Forensic
Forensic
profiling is the study of trace evidence in order to develop information which can be used by police authorities. This information can be used to identify suspects and convict them in a court of law. The term "forensic" in this context refers to "information that is used in court as evidence" (Geradts & Sommer 2006, p. 10). The traces originate from criminal or litigious activities themselves. However traces are information that is not strictly dedicated to the court
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