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Fonualei (volcano)
Fonualei is an uninhabited 5 km2 volcanic island close to Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
in the kingdom of Tonga. It was seen by Don Francisco Mourelle de la Rua on the La Princesa on 26 February 1781.[2] He reported the island to be barren from eruptions, and called it for that reason Amargura (Bitterness in Spanish). A major eruption in 1846, starting 11 June, destroyed much of the vegetation of Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
and spread ash around for at least a year. Some sources claim that three other neighbouring volcanoes, Late, Tokū and another, erupted at the same time. This is probably a mistake by passing ships who misidentified the erupting island. The closest island to Fonualei is Tokū 19.7 km to the southeast. See also[edit]List of volcanoes in TongaReferences[edit]^ "Fonualei". Global Volcanism Program
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Don (honorific)
Don (Spanish: [don], Italian: [dɔn], Portuguese: Dom [dõ], from Latin dominus, roughly 'Lord'), abbreviated as D., is an honorific title used in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Iberoamerica, and the Philippines. The female equivalent is Doña (Spanish: [ˈdoɲa]), Donna (Italian: [ˈdɔnna]), and Dona (Portuguese: [ˈdonɐ]), abbreviated Dª, Da., or simply D.Contents1 Usage 2 Spain
Spain
and its colonies 3 Modern usage 4 Portugal
Portugal
and its colonies 5 Italy 6 Croatia 7 Academia 8 Other uses 9 See also 10 ReferencesUsage[edit] Although originally a title reserved for royalty, select nobles, and church hierarchs, it is now often used as a mark of esteem for a person of personal, social or official distinction, such as a community leader of long standing, a person of significant wealth, or a noble, but may also be used ironically
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama
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Global Volcanism Program
The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism
Volcanism
Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP). The GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall
National Mall
in Washington, D.C. During the early stages of an eruption, the GVP acts as a clearing house of reports, data, and imagery which are accumulated from a global network of contributors
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Tokū, Tonga
Tokū is an uninhabited, volcanic island in Tonga. It is located in the very north of Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
group in the north of the country. It is about 1,000 metres (3,300 feet) long and up to 700 metres (2,300 feet) wide,[1] yielding an area of 0.4 square kilometres (0.2 square miles).[2] It is up to 8 metres (26 feet) above sea level near its east coast.[3] The closest island is Fonualei 19.7 km to the northwest.^ measured from Wikimapia ^ islands.unep.ch: Toku ^ Sailing Directions Enroute[dead link] Pub. 126 Pacific Islands (PDF)Coordinates: 18°9′30″S 174°10′50″W / 18.15833°S 174.18056°W / -18.15833; -174.18056This Tongan location article is a stub
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Late (Tonga)
Late Island
Island
is an uninhabited volcanic island southwest of Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
in the kingdom of Tonga. The small, 6-km-wide circular island of Late, lying along the Tofua volcanic arc about 55 km WSW of the island of Vavaʻu, contains a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep summit crater with an ephemeral lake. The largely submerged basaltic andesite to andesitic volcano rises 1500 m from the sea floor, with its conical summit reaching 540 m above sea level. Cinder cones are found north of the summit crater, west and north of a semicircular plateau 100–150 m below the summit, and on the NW coast. A graben-like structure on the NE flank contains two large pit craters, the lower of which is partially filled by a saltwater lake
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1781
1781
1781
was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1781st year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 781st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1780s
1780s
decade
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Francisco Antonio Mourelle
Francisco Antonio Mourelle de la Rúa (1750 – May 24, 1820) was a Galician naval officer and explorer serving the Spanish crown. He was born in 1750 at San Adrián de Corme (Corme Aldea, Ponteceso), near La Coruña, Galicia.[1]Contents1 1775 voyage 2 1779 voyage 3 Later career 4 Legacy 5 References1775 voyage[edit] Mourelle served the Spanish navy in the Guyanas, Trinidad, and the Antilles
Antilles
before becoming stationed at New Spain's Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
naval base at San Blas, Mexico
Mexico
in 1774. He joined the 1775 expedition of Bruno de Heceta and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, serving as Quadra's pilot on the schooner Sonora. On July 29, at around 49 degrees north latitude, the Sonora became separated from Heceta's ship Santiago. Heceta soon returned south while Quadra and Mourelle continued north, eventually reaching 58 degrees 30 minutes north latitude
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Tonga
Coordinates: 20°S 175°W / 20°S 175°W / -20; -175Kingdom of Tonga Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga
Tonga
(Tongan)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Ko e ʻOtua mo Tonga
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List Of Mountain Lists
Perhaps the first of what would become many notable mountain lists around the world was Sir Hugh Munro’s catalog of the Munros, the peaks above 3,000’ in Scotland).[1] Once defined the list became a popular target for what became known as peak bagging, where the adventurous attempted to summit all of the peaks on the list.[2] Over time the peaks on such lists grew more challenging
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Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
is the island group of one large island (ʻUtu Vavaʻu) and 40 smaller ones in Tonga. It is part of Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
District
District
which includes several other individual islands. According to tradition the Maui god fished up both Tongatapu
Tongatapu
and Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
but put a little more effort into the former. Vavaʻu
Vavaʻu
rises 204 metres (669 ft) above sea level at Mount Talau
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Volcanic Island
In geology (and sometimes in archaeology), a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs[1] (which have often formed on sunken volcanos).Contents1 Definition and origin 2 Habitability for humans 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition and origin[edit] There are a number of "high islands" which rise no more than a few feet above sea level, often classified as "islets or rocks", while some "low islands", such as Makatea, Nauru, Niue, Henderson and Banaba, as uplifted coral islands, rise several hundred feet above sea level. The two types of islands are often found in proximity to each other, especially among the islands of the South Pacific Ocean, where low islands are found on the fringing reefs that surround most high islands
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Types Of Volcanic Eruptions
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward
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Stratovolcano
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano,[1] is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica (as in rhyolite, dacite, or andesite), with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).[2] Stratovolcanoes are sometimes called "composite volcanoes" because of their composite layered structure built up from sequential outpourings of eruptive materials
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