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Flying Column
A FLYING COLUMN is a small, independent, military land unit capable of rapid mobility and usually composed of all arms . It is often an ad hoc unit, formed during the course of operations. The term is usually, though not necessarily, applied to forces less than the strength of a brigade . As mobility is its primary purpose, a flying column is accompanied by the minimum of equipment. It generally uses suitable fast transport; historically, horses were used, with trucks and helicopters replacing them in modern times. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading HISTORYFlying columns are mentioned by Sun Tzu
Sun Tzu
in his Art of War
Art of War
in such a fashion that indicates it was not a new concept at the time of his writing. This dates to at least the middle 6th century BC, and possibly the late 8th century BC. The Roman army made good use of the flying columns in the early imperial era. One such commander, the great proconsul Germanicus Caesar used flying columns to great effect in the early stages of the campaign against one of Rome's greatest enemies, Arminius . Scouts, raiders, and screening forces were used against the Germanic tribes responsible for destroying three Roman legions (the 17th, 18th, and 19th) in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
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Seán Hogan
SEáN HOGAN (13 May 1901 – 24 December 1968) was one of the leaders of the 3rd Tipperary Brigade of the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Soloheadbeg * 3 Knocklong * 4 Dublin * 5 West Limerick * 6 Back in Tipperary * 7 Truce and Civil War * 7.1 Post War Life * 8 References * 8.1 Bibliography * 9 External links EARLY LIFEHogan was born on 13 May 1901, the eldest child of Matthew Hogan of Greenane Tipperary and Johanna Corbett, Sean had one younger brother, Matthew. He was baptized John Joseph Hogan and was often called JJ by his friends. The 1911 census shows Hogan living in Stockaun, adjacent to Greenane in South West Tipperary, 2–3 miles north of Tipperary Town . He attend the local national school and was taught Irish language and history by Cormac Breathnach who also taught several other local students who would become prominent in the nationalist movement including Seán Treacy , Dan Breen and Dinny Lacey . Hogan's father died in 1916. Sean joined the local volunteers and was a member of the Donohill company of the Tipperary Third Brigade. In early 1918 he was assigned to work with Dan Breen
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Third Tipperary Brigade
The 3RD TIPPERARY BRIGADE (Irish : Tríú Briogáid Thiobraid Árainn ) was one of the most active of approximately 80 such units that constituted the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence . The Brigade was based in southern Tipperary and conducted its activities mainly in mid- Munster
Munster
. In December 1918 and January 1919, in a tin hut on a dairy farm in Greenane, Tipperary, members of the brigade planned what was to be the first act of the Irish War of Independence, the Soloheadbeg Ambush . In the early part of the war, four members of the brigade were the most wanted men in Ireland. The 'Big Four', as they were referred to in Ireland in 1919 were Seán Treacy , Dan Breen , Séamus Robinson and Seán Hogan
Seán Hogan
. Raids, ambushes and ongoing military activities by the Brigade Battalions and flying columns made South Tipperary ungovernable for the British in 1920 and 1921, with the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) confined to what barracks remained occupied and the British Army only venturing out in large convoys
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Irish War Of Independence
The IRISH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (Irish : _Cogadh na Saoirse_) or ANGLO-IRISH WAR or the TAN WAR was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic ) and the British security forces in Ireland. It was an escalation of the Irish revolutionary period into armed conflict. In the December 1918 election , the Irish republican party Sinn Féin won a landslide victory in Ireland. On 21 January 1919 they formed a breakaway government ( Dáil Éireann ) and declared independence from Britain . Later that day, two members of the British-organised armed police force, the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC), were shot dead in County Tipperary by IRA members acting on their own initiative. This is often seen as the beginning of the conflict. For much of 1919, IRA activity primarily involved capturing weapons and freeing republican prisoners. In September that year the British government outlawed the Dáil and Sinn Féin, and the conflict intensified thereafter. The IRA began ambushing RIC and British Army patrols, attacking their barracks and forcing isolated barracks to be abandoned. The British government bolstered the RIC with recruits from Britain—the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries —who became notorious for ill-discipline and reprisal attacks on civilians
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Military Organization
MILITARY ORGANIZATION or MILITARY ORGANISATION is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy . In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures. Military organization is hierarchical . The use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army . In modern times, executive control, management and administration of military organization is typically undertaken by the government through a government department within the structure of public administration , often known as a Ministry of Defense , Department of Defense , or Department of War . These in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command combat, combat support and combat service support formations and units
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Sub-subunit
SUB-SUBUNIT or SUB-SUB-UNIT is a subordinated element below platoon level of company sized units or sub-units which normally might not be separately identified in authorization documents by name, number, or letter. Fire and maneuver teams , fireteams , squads , crews , sections and patrols are typically sub-subunits. TYPES OF SUB-UNITS Main article: Military organization § Modern hierarchy Main article: Canadian Army Advanced Warfare Centre Sub-subunits (de: Teileinheit; ru: подразделение/ podrasdelenie) in various languages and armed forces Designation ">Trupp gun crew/ combat tank 2–7 men Unteroffizier Hauptgefreiter Team (e.g. Fireteam ) Équipe de combat Команда (Komanda) działon, obsługa ● ● two points two points above a laying rectangle / (example) * Gruppe * Halbzug * 8–12 men * 2 crew combat tank Oberfeldwebel ⇒ Unteroffizier Squad
Squad
Groupe de combat Отделе́ние (Gruppe) Экипаж (crew) Расчёт (service crew) Drużyna Rotte 2 air craft Two-ship flight/ Pair N.N. Пара (Para) N.N. ● ● ● three points three points above a laying rectangle / (example) * Zug * Hörsaal ca
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Fireteam
A FIRETEAM or FIRE TEAM is a small military sub-subunit of infantry designed to optimize "bounding overwatch " and "fire and movement " tactical doctrine in combat. Depending on mission requirements, a typical fireteam consists of 4 or fewer members; an assistant automatic rifleman, an automatic rifleman , a rifleman , and a designated team leader; the role of each fireteam leader is to ensure the fireteam operates as a cohesive unit. Two or three fireteams are organized into a squad or section in coordinated operations, which is led by a squad leader . Military theorists consider effective fireteams as essential for modern professional militaries as they serve as a primary group. Psychological studies by the United States Army have indicated that a soldier's' survivability and the willingness to fight is more heavily influenced by the desire to both protect and avoid failing to support other members of the fireteam than by abstract concepts or ideologies . Historically, nations with effective fireteam organization have had significantly better performance from their infantry units in combat than those limited to operations by traditionally larger units
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Squad
In military terminology, a SQUAD is a sub-subunit led by a non-commissioned officer that is subordinate to an infantry platoon . In countries following the British Army tradition ( Australian Army , Canadian Army , and others), this organization is referred to as a SECTION . In most armies , a squad consists of eight to fourteen soldiers , and may be further subdivided into fireteams
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Aircrew
AIRCREW, also called FLIGHT CREW, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight. The composition of a flight's crew depends on the type of aircraft, plus the duration and purpose of the flight. CONTENTS* 1 Commercial aviation * 1.1 Flight deck positions * 1.2 Cabin positions * 2 Military * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography * 5 External links COMMERCIAL AVIATIONFLIGHT DECK POSITIONSIn commercial aviation , the aircrew are called flight crew. Some flight crew position names are derived from nautical terms and indicate a rank or command structure similar to that on ocean-going vessels, allowing for quick executive decision making during normal operations or emergency situations. Historical flightdeck positions include: Bell 212 aircrew from Alpine Helicopters scramble on a medical evacuation mission. * Captain , the pilot designated as the Pilot-In-Command (PIC), and the highest-ranking member or members of a flight crew. * First Officer (FO, also called a co-pilot), another pilot who is not the pilot-in-command, and is normally seated to the right of the captain. (On helicopters, an FO is normally seated to the left of the captain, who occupies the right hand seat). * Second Officer (SO), a person lower in rank to the First Officer, and who typically performs selected duties and also acts as a relief pilot
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Section (military Unit)
A SECTION is a military sub-subunit . It usually consists of between six and 20 personnel, and is usually an alternate name for, and equivalent to, a squad . As such two or more sections usually make up an army platoon or an air force flight . However, in the French Army
French Army
and in armies based on the French model, a section is equivalent to a platoon
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Patrol
A PATROL is commonly a group of personnel, such as law enforcement officers or military personnel , that are assigned to monitor a specific geographic area. This is also often referred to as a beat . CONTENTS * 1 Military * 2 Law enforcement * 3 Etymology * 4 Non-law enforcement patrols * 4.1 Schools * 4.2 Scouting
Scouting
* 5 References * 6 External links MILITARY UN Peacekeepers in Eritrea
Eritrea
monitoring the Eritrea-Ethiopia international border. See also: Patrolling
Patrolling
In military tactics , a PATROL is a sub-subunit or small tactical formation, sent out from a military organization by land, sea or air for the purpose of combat, reconnaissance , or a combination of both. The basic task of a patrol is to follow a known route with the purpose of investigating some feature of interest or, in the assignment of a FIGHTING PATROL (US COMBAT PATROL), to find and engage the enemy. A PATROL can also mean a small cavalry or armoured unit , subordinate to a troop or platoon , usually comprising a section or squad of mounted troopers , or two AFVs (often tanks ). LAW ENFORCEMENT A patrol performed by United States Secret Service officers. U.S. Border Patrol agent monitoring the U.S.-Canada border in Montana
Montana

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Platoon
A PLATOON is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads /sections /patrols . Platoon organization varies depending on the country and the branch, but typically a platoon consists of around 40 to 50 soldiers. A platoon leader or commander is the officer in command of a platoon. This person is usually a junior officer —a second or first lieutenant or an equivalent rank. The officer is usually assisted by a platoon sergeant . A platoon is typically the smallest military unit led by a commissioned officer . Platoons normally consist of three or four sections (Commonwealth) or squads (US). In some armies, platoon is used throughout the branches of the army. In others, such as the British Army and other Commonwealth armies, platoons are associated with the infantry . In a few armies, such as the French Army , a platoon is specifically a cavalry unit, and the infantry use "section" as the equivalent unit. A unit consisting of several platoons is called a company /battery /troop
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Company (military Unit)
A COMPANY is a military unit , typically consisting of 80–250 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain . Most companies are formed of three to six platoons , although the exact number may vary by country, unit type, and structure. Usually several companies are grouped as a battalion or regiment , the latter of which is sometimes formed by several battalions. Occasionally, independent or separate companies are organized for special purposes, such as the 1st Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company or the 3rd Force Reconnaissance Company . These companies are not organic to a battalion or regiment, but rather report directly to a higher level organization such as a Marine Expeditionary Force or MEF ( for the US armed forces ) headquarters (i.e., a corps -level command). CONTENTS * 1 Historical background * 2 British Army
British Army
* 3 Canadian Army
Canadian Army
* 4 Soviet/Russian armed forces * 4.1 Motorised rifle company * 4.2 Tank
Tank
company * 4.3 Research company * 5 United States * 5.1 Army * 5.1.1 Historical background * 5.1.2 Modern use * 5.2 Marine Corps
Corps
* 6 Disambiguation * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORICAL BACKGROUND This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Artillery Battery
In military organizations , an ARTILLERY BATTERY is a unit of guns, mortars , rockets or missiles so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control , as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems. The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships . CONTENTS* 1 Land usage * 1.1 Mobile batteries * 1.2 Fixed battery * 2 Naval usage * 3 Modern battery organization * 3.1 United States Marine Corps * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LAND USAGE A coast battery in Crawfordsburn , County Down , Northern Ireland Historically the term "battery" referred to a cluster of cannon in action as a group, either in a temporary field position during a battle or at the siege of a fortress or a city. Such batteries could be a mixture of cannon, howitzer , or mortar types. A siege could involve many batteries at different sites around the besieged place. The term also came to be used for a group of cannon in a fixed fortification, for coastal or frontier defence. During the 18th century "battery" began to be used as an organizational term for a permanent unit of artillery in peace and war, although horse artillery sometimes used "troop" and fixed position artillery "company". They were usually organised with between six and 12 ordnance pieces, often including cannon and howitzers
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Troop
A TROOP is a military sub-subunit , originally a small formation of cavalry , subordinate to a squadron . In many armies a troop is the equivalent element to the infantry section or platoon . Exceptions are the Royal Horse Artillery and the US Cavalry , where troops are subunits that compare to an infantry company or artillery battery . A cavalry soldier of private rank is called a trooper in many Commonwealth armies (abbreviated "Tpr", not to be confused with "trouper"). A related sense of the term "troops" refers to members of the military collectively, as in "the troops"; see Troop (other) . In some countries, like Italy , the company-level cavalry unit is called "Squadron". TROOPS IN VARIOUS FORCESToday, a troop is defined differently in different armed forces. In the Australian Army a troop is the equivalent of a platoon sized element in units of certain corps, those being: * Royal Australian Armoured Corps * Royal Australian Engineers * Royal Australian Corps of Signals * Australian Army Aviation * Royal Australian Corps of Transport * Royal Australian Survey Corps (now disbanded) * Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) The SASR is the only unit in the Royal Australian Infantry Corps to use the term troop to refer to its platoon size elements
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Battalion
A BATTALION is a military unit . The use of the term "battalion" varies by nationality and branch of service. Typically a battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies . A battalion is typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel . In some countries the word "battalion" is associated with the infantry . The term was first used in Italian as _battaglione_ no later than the 16th century. It derived from the Italian word for battle, _battaglia_. The first use of battalion in English was in the 1580s, and the first use to mean "part of a regiment" is from 1708
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