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Fly
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings". Insects of this order use only a single pair of wings to fly, the hindwings having evolved into advanced mechanosensory organs known as halteres, which act as high-speed sensors of rotational movement and allow dipterans to perform advanced aerobatics.[1] Diptera
Diptera
is a large order containing an estimated 1,000,000 species including horse-flies,[a] crane flies, hoverflies and others, although only about 125,000 species have been described.[4] Flie
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West Nile Fever
West Nile fever is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes.[1] In about 75% of infections people have few or no symptoms.[1] About 20% of people develop a fever, headache, vomiting, or a rash.[1] In less than 1% of people, encephalitis or meningitis occurs, with associated neck stiffness, confusion, or seizures.[1] Recovery may take weeks to months.[1] The risk of death among those in whom the nervous system is affected is about 10%.[1] West Nile virus is typically spread by infected mosquitoes.[1] Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds.[1] Rarely the virus is spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.[1] It otherwise does not spread directly between people.[2] Risks for severe disease include age over 60 and other health problems.[1] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and blood tests.[1] There is no human vaccine.[1] The best method to reduce the risk of infections is av
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Neogene
The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period
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Species Description
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described previously or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name. Today, some 1.9 million species have been described and named, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist on Earth.[1] Millions more have become extinct. It is customary for scientists to introduce all relevant new findings and research in a scientific manuscript, which is sent to other scientists for peer review
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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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Encephalitis
Encephalitis
Encephalitis
is inflammation of the brain.[5] Severity is variable.[1] Symptoms may include headache, fever, confusion, a stiff neck, and vomiting.[1] Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing.[1] Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus or rabies, bacteria, fungus, or parasites.[2][1] Other causes include autoimmune diseases and certain medication.[2] In many cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include a weak immune system.[2] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and supported by blood tests, medical imaging, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.[2] Ce
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Yellow Fever
Yellow fever
Yellow fever
is a viral disease of typically short duration.[3] In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches.[3] Symptoms typically improve within five days.[3] In about 15% of people within a day of improving, the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin.[3][6] If this occurs, the risk of bleeding and kidney problems is also increased.[3] The disease is caused by the yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito.[3] It infects only humans, other primates, and several sp
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Vector (epidemiology)
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism;[1][2] most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.[3]Contents1 Arthropods 2 Plants and fungi 3 World Health Organization
World Health Organization
and vector-borne disease 4 Vector-borne zoonotic disease and human activity 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksArthropods[edit]The deer tick, a vector for Lyme disease
Lyme disease
pathogens.Arthropods form a major group of pathogen vectors with mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites transmitting a huge number of pathogens. Many such vectors are haematophagous, which feed on blood at some or all stages of their lives. When the insects blood feed, the pathogen enters the blood stream of the host
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Malaria
Malaria
Malaria
is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium
Plasmodium
type.[2] Malaria
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Infection
Infection
Infection
is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.[1][2] Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Eye
Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons. In higher organisms, the eye is a complex optical system which collects light from the surrounding environment, regulates its intensity through a diaphragm, focuses it through an adjustable assembly of lenses to form an image, converts this image into a set of electrical signals, and transmits these signals to the brain through complex neural pathways that connect the eye via the optic nerve to the visual cortex and other areas of the brain
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Metamorphosis
Metamorphosis
Metamorphosis
is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Metamorphosis
Metamorphosis
is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates.[1] Some insects, fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, cnidarians, echinoderms, and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, which is often accompanied by a change of nutrition source or behavior. Animals that go through metamorphosis are called metamorphoses.[citation needed] Animals can be divided into species that undergo complete metamorphosis ("holometaboly"), incomplete metamorphosis ("hemimetaboly"), or no metamorphosis ("ametaboly"). Scientific usage of the term is technically precise, and it is not applied to general aspects of cell growth, including rapid growth spurts
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