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Fluorescent
Fluorescence
Fluorescence
is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
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Inflorescence
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Ground State
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. In the quantum field theory, the ground state is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum. If more than one ground state exists, they are said to be degenerate. Many systems have degenerate ground states. Degeneracy occurs whenever there exists a unitary operator which acts non-trivially on a ground state and commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system. According to the third law of thermodynamics, a system at absolute zero temperature exists in its ground state; thus, its entropy is determined by the degeneracy of the ground state. Many systems, such as a perfect crystal lattice, have a unique ground state and therefore have zero entropy at absolute zero
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Edward Daniel Clarke
Edward Daniel Clarke
Edward Daniel Clarke
(5 June 1769 – 9 March 1822) was an English clergyman, naturalist, mineralogist, and traveller.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Edward Daniel Clarke
Edward Daniel Clarke
was born at Willingdon, Sussex, and educated first at Uckfield School[1] and then at Tonbridge.[2] In 1786 he obtained the office of chapel clerk at Jesus College, Cambridge, but the loss of his father at this time involved him in difficulties. In 1790 he took his degree,[3] and soon after became private tutor to Henry Tufton, nephew of the Duke of Dorset. In 1792 he obtained an engagement to travel with Lord Berwick through Germany, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Italy
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René Just Haüy
René Just Haüy
René Just Haüy
(French pronunciation: ​[aɥi]) FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame. He is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Crystallography".[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] Haüy was born at Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, in the département of Oise. His parents were of a humble rank of life, and were only enabled by the kindness of friends to send their son to the College of Navarre and later to the College of Lemoine. Haüy became an ordained Roman Catholic priest. Becoming one of the teachers at Lemoine, he began to devote his leisure hours to the study of botany, but an accident directed his attention to another field in natural history. He happened to let fall a specimen of calcareous spar which belonged to a friend
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Fluorite
Fluorite
Fluorite
(also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals. It crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch Hardness comparison, defines value 4 as Fluorite. Fluorite
Fluorite
is a colorful mineral, both in visible and ultraviolet light, and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, and in the production of certain glasses and enamels. The purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, which is the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals. Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersion, so lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberration, making them valuable in microscopes and telescopes
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Sir David Brewster
Sir David Brewster
David Brewster
KH PRSE FRS FSA(Scot) FSSA MICE (11 December 1781 – 10 February 1868) was a British scientist, inventor, author, and academic administrator. In science he is principally remembered for his experimental work in physical optics, mostly concerned with the study of the polarization of light and including the discovery of Brewster's angle
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Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
(also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.[1] Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros ("green") and φύλλον, phyllon ("leaf").[2] Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophylls absorb light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as the red portion.[3] Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues
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Sir John Herschel
Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet
Baronet
KH FRS (/ˈhɜːrʃəl, ˈhɛər-/;[1] 7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871)[2] was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer, who also did valuable botanical work.[2] He was the son of Mary Baldwin and astronomer William Herschel, nephew of astronomer Caroline Herschel
Caroline Herschel
and the father of twelve children.[2] Herschel originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy. He named seven moons of Saturn
Saturn
and four moons of Uranus
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George Gabriel Stokes
Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, PRS (/stoʊks/; 13 August 1819 – 1 February 1903), was an Irish physicist and mathematician. Born in Ireland, Stokes spent all of his career at the University of Cambridge, where he served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics
Mathematics
from 1849 until his death in 1903. In physics, Stokes made seminal contributions to fluid dynamics (including the Navier–Stokes equations) and to physical optics. In mathematics he formulated the first version of what is now known as Stokes's theorem
Stokes's theorem
and contributed to the theory of asymptotic expansions
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Electron
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.[8] Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family,[9] and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.[1] The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton.[10] Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.[9] Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light
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Nanostructure
A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures. Nanostructural detail is microstructure at nanoscale. In describing nanostructures, it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions in the volume of an object which are on the nanoscale. Nanotextured surfaces have one dimension on the nanoscale, i.e., only the thickness of the surface of an object is between 0.1 and 100 nm. Nanotubes have two dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the diameter of the tube is between 0.1 and 100 nm; its length can be far more. Finally, spherical nanoparticles have three dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the particle is between 0.1 and 100 nm in each spatial dimension. The terms nanoparticles and ultrafine particles (UFP) are often used synonymously although UFP can reach into the micrometre range
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Photon
A photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum, though not both at the same time
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Excited State
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum). Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state. In physics there is a specific technical definition for energy level which is often associated with an atom being raised to an excited state.[citation needed] The temperature of a group of particles is indicative of the level of excitation (with the notable exception of systems that exhibit negative temperature). The lifetime of a system in an excited state is usually short: spontaneous or induced emission of a quantum of energy (such as a photon or a phonon) usually occurs shortly after the system is promoted to the excited state, returning the system to a state with lower energy (a less excited state or the ground state)
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Singlet State
In quantum mechanics, a singlet state usually refers to a system in which all electrons are paired. The term singlet originally meant a linked set of particles whose net angular momentum is zero, that is, whose overall spin quantum number s = 0 displaystyle s=0 . As a result, there is only one spectral line of a singlet state. In contrast, a doublet state contains one unpaired electron and shows splitting of spectral lines into a doublet; and a triplet state has two unpaired electrons and shows threefold splitting of spectral lines.Contents1 History 2 Examples 3 Mathematical representations 4 Singlets and entangled states 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Singlets and the related spin concepts of doublets and triplets occur frequently in atomic physics and nuclear physics, where one often needs to determine the total spin of a collection of particles
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