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Flattening Flattening Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively. Other terms used are ellipticity, or oblateness. The usual notation for flattening is f and its definition in terms of the semiaxes of the resulting ellipse or ellipsoid is f l a t t e n i n g = f = a − b a . displaystyle mathrm flattening =f= frac ab a . The compression factor is b/a in each case. For the ellipse, this factor is also the aspect ratio of the ellipse. There are two other variants of flattening (see below) and when it is necessary to avoid confusion the above flattening is called the first flattening [...More...] 


Elliptic Operator In the theory of partial differential equations, elliptic operators are differential operators that generalize the Laplace operator. They are defined by the condition that the coefficients of the highestorder derivatives be positive, which implies the key property that the principal symbol is invertible, or equivalently that there are no real characteristic directions. Elliptic operators are typical of potential theory, and they appear frequently in electrostatics and continuum mechanics. Elliptic regularity implies that their solutions tend to be smooth functions (if the coefficients in the operator are smooth) [...More...] 


Pergamon Press Pergamon Pergamon Press was an Oxfordbased publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals. Originally called ButterworthSpringer, it is now an imprint of Elsevier. History[edit] The core company, ButterworthSpringer, started in 1948 to bring the "Springer knowhow and techniques of aggressive publishing in science"[1] to Britain. Paul Rosbaud was the man with the knowledge. When Maxwell acquired the company in 1951, Rosbaud held a onequarter share.[1] They changed the house name to Pergamon Pergamon Press, using a logo that was a reproduction of a Greek coin from Pergamon [...More...] 


Earth Ellipsoid An Earth ellipsoid Earth ellipsoid is a mathematical figure approximating the shape of the Earth, used as a reference frame for computations in geodesy, astronomy and the geosciences. Various different ellipsoids have been used as approximations. It is an ellipsoid of revolution, whose short (polar) axis (connecting the two flattest spots called geographical north and south poles) is approximately aligned with the rotation axis of the Earth. The ellipsoid is defined by the equatorial axis a and the polar axis b; their difference is about 21 km or 0.335 percent [...More...] 


Earth's Rotation Earth's rotation Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth Earth around its own axis. Earth Earth rotates eastward, in prograde motion. As viewed from the north pole star Polaris, Earth Earth turns counterclockwise. The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere Northern Hemisphere where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. This point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole. The South Pole South Pole is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica. Earth Earth rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the Sun, but once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below) [...More...] 


Gravitational Field In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.[1] Thus, a gravitational field is used to explain gravitational phenomena, and is measured in newtons per kilogram (N/kg). In its original concept, gravity was a force between point masses. Following Isaac Newton, PierreSimon Laplace attempted to model gravity as some kind of radiation field or fluid, and since the 19th century explanations for gravity have usually been taught in terms of a field model, rather than a point attraction. In a field model, rather than two particles attracting each other, the particles distort spacetime via their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force" [...More...] 


Gravity Formula In geodesy and geophysics, theoretical gravity or normal gravity is an approximation of the true effective or apparent gravity on Earth's surface by means of a mathematical model representing (a physically smoothed) Earth. The most common model of a smoothed Earth Earth is an Earth ellipsoid, or, more specifically, an Earth Earth spheroid (i.e., an ellipsoid of revolution). Various, successively more refined, formulas for computing the theoretical gravity are referred to as the International Gravity Formula, the first of which was proposed in 1930 by the International Association of Geodesy [...More...] 


Ovality In telecommunications and fiber optics, ovality or noncircularity is the degree of deviation from perfect circularity of the cross section of the core or cladding of the fiber. The crosssections of the core and cladding are assumed to a first approximation to be elliptical. Quantitatively, the ovality of either the core or cladding is expressed as 2 ( a − b ) a + b displaystyle frac 2(ab) a+b , where a is the length of the major axis and b is the length of the minor axis. The dimensionless quantity so obtained may be multiplied by 100 to express ovality as a percentage [...More...] 


Planetology Planetary science Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology. There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science [...More...] 


International Standard Book Number The International Standard Book Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an ebook, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nationspecific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9digit Standard Book Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966 [...More...] 


Gravitational Force Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe Universe caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe [...More...] 


Special Special Special or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mwparseroutput .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;marginbottom:.5em .mwparseroutput .tocrightclearleft clear:left .mwparseroutput .tocrightclearboth clear:both .mwparseroutput .tocrightclearnone clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster [...More...] 


United States Government Printing Office The United States Government Publishing Office United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office prints and binds documents produced by and for the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, and independent agencies. In December 2014 an omnibus spending bill funding US federal government operations was passed which included a provision changing the name from Government Printing Office to Government Publishing Office [...More...] 


Wayback Machine The Wayback Machine Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, United States. .mwparseroutput .toclimit2 .toclevel1 ul,.mwparseroutput .toclimit3 .toclevel2 ul,.mwparseroutput .toclimit4 .toclevel3 ul,.mwparseroutput .toclimit5 .toclevel4 ul,.mwparseroutput .toclimit6 .toclevel5 ul,.mwparseroutput .toclimit7 .toclevel6 ul display:none Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capacity and growth 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive Archive Policy3 Uses3.1 Limitations 3.2 In legal evidence3.2.1 Civil litigation3.2.1.1 Netbula LLC v [...More...] 


Digital Object Identifier In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely [...More...] 


ArXiv arXivType of siteScienceAvailable inEnglishOwnerCornell UniversityCreated byPaul GinspargWebsitearxiv.orgAlexa rank 872 (As of 25 April 2019[update])[1]CommercialNoLaunchedAugust 14, 1991; 28 years ago (19910814)Current statusOnlineISSN23318422OCLC number228652809arXiv (pronounced "archive"—the X represents the Greek letter chi [χ])[2] is a repository of electronic preprints (known as eprints) approved for posting after moderation, but not full peer review. It consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, mathematical finance and economics, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are selfarchived on the arXiv repository [...More...] 
